Craniofacial Growth and Development of Finnish Children: A longitudinal study

Marjut Evälahti

Tutkimustuotos: OpinnäyteVäitöskirjaArtikkelikokoelma


The amount, velocity, timing, and sensation of growth of the craniofacial complex are of interest to clinicians, researchers, and individuals alike, with different populations around the world exhibiting variation. The aims of this study were: to generate population-standard values for craniofacial growth and development in Finns from 4 to 25 years of age as well as to investigate population-specific features regarding growth timing and velocity. This work was based on the prospective Helsinki Longitudinal Growth Study conducted between 1967 and 1994. At the end of the study, when the subjects were examined as a group for the last time, 190 participants, young adults at the time, had remained in the study. Most of them were then aged 24 to 25, the youngest ones being 19 to 20 years of age. After the exclusion of children treated for orthodontics, 105 subjects, 50 boys and 55 girls, formed the final study group of untreated healthy individuals. The present study is based on 551 cephalograms taken from these individuals between the ages 4 to 25 years. This equated to 3 to 8 lateral skull radiographs of each child, with an average 5.2 radiographs per child. These radiographs were analyzed with a computer program specially developed for this study. Tables, growth curves, growth velocity curves, and change curves were created for reference values of Finnish children to describe their size, shape, dimensions, and respective changes. Findings are that Finnish children have a strong closing growth pattern and square facial form when compared to those of other populations, notably British children. Sexual dimorphism appeared in the findings, with males showing more pronounced closing in their pattern of growth and a more distinct mandibular pubertal growth spurt than females. Late or residual growth between ages 20 and 25 years occurred in many variables, especially in males. It is hoped that these data will be useful to clinicians, researchers, and individuals as a reference sample for Finnish normal craniofacial growth.
  • Rice, David, Valvoja
  • Waltimo-Siren, Janna C, Valvoja
Painoksen ISBN978-951-51-6556-5
Sähköinen ISBN 978-951-51-6557-2
TilaJulkaistu - 2020
OKM-julkaisutyyppiG5 Tohtorinväitöskirja (artikkeli)


M1 - 342 s. + liitteet


  • 313 Hammaslääketieteet

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