Development and deployment of high-throughput retrotransposon-based markers reveal genetic diversity and population structure of Asian bamboo

Shitian Li, Muthusamy Ramakrishnan, K. K. Vinod, Ruslan Kalendar, Kim Yrjälä, Mingbing Zhou

Tutkimustuotos: ArtikkelijulkaisuArtikkeliTieteellinenvertaisarvioitu

Kuvaus

Bamboo, a non-timber grass species, known for exceptionally fast growth, is a commercially viable crop. Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, the main class I mobile genetic elements in plant genomes, are highly abundant (46%) in bamboo contributing to genome diversity. They play significant roles in the regulation of gene expression, chromosome size and structure as well as in genome integrity. Inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) is a high-throughput method to study the genetic diversity of plant species. Till date, there are no markers based on Transposable Elements (TEs) for the bamboo genome and no reports on bamboo genetic diversity using the IRAP method. Phyllostachys is an Asian bamboo, the largest group in the bamboo subfamily, Bambusoideae, and it is of great economic value due to its fast growth. The structure of LTR-retrotransposon superfamilies, Ty3-gypsy and Ty1-copia, were analysed in the bamboo genome using LTRharvest and LTRdigest software. A total of 98,850 LTR retrotransposons with both ends of intact LTR sequences were identified, grouped into 64,281 clusters/scaffolds, using CD-HIT software. Among the total of 64,281 clusters, 13 clusters had more than 30 copy numbers of LTR sequences and at least one copy had all intact protein domains such as gag protein and polyprotein. Based on the high copy numbers of conserved LTR sequences, a total of 16 IRAP primers were developed. All these IRAP primers were used to study the genetic diversity and population structure of the Asian bamboo. AMOVA analysis was done for 58 Asian bamboo species collected from nine different provinces of China, from Italy and America. In the bamboo species, these IRAP primers produced a total of 3340 amplicons with an average of 98% polymorphism. The 58 Asian bamboo species were grouped into two major clusters and four sub-clusters, based on UPGMA analysis. UPGMA cluster analysis was corroborated by statistical analyses of genetic similarity coefficients. Structure analysis showed that the bamboo species could be divided into four subpopulations (K = 4): SP1, SP2, SP3 and SP4. All SPs had an admixture of alleles. AMOVA analysis showed that higher genetic variations occurred within populations (75%) rather than among populations (25%). The study highlights the usability of IRAP in Asian bamboo to determine inter-species variability using retrotransposon markers.
Alkuperäiskielienglanti
LehtiForests
Vuosikerta11
Numero1
Sivut31
ISSN1999-4907
DOI - pysyväislinkit
TilaJulkaistu - 1 tammikuuta 2020
OKM-julkaisutyyppiA1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä, vertaisarvioitu

Lainaa tätä

Li, Shitian ; Ramakrishnan, Muthusamy ; Vinod, K. K. ; Kalendar, Ruslan ; Yrjälä, Kim ; Zhou, Mingbing . / Development and deployment of high-throughput retrotransposon-based markers reveal genetic diversity and population structure of Asian bamboo. Julkaisussa: Forests. 2020 ; Vuosikerta 11, Nro 1. Sivut 31.
@article{84da2ead3f834b8d91d92896e769e920,
title = "Development and deployment of high-throughput retrotransposon-based markers reveal genetic diversity and population structure of Asian bamboo",
abstract = "Bamboo, a non-timber grass species, known for exceptionally fast growth, is a commercially viable crop. Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, the main class I mobile genetic elements in plant genomes, are highly abundant (46{\%}) in bamboo contributing to genome diversity. They play significant roles in the regulation of gene expression, chromosome size and structure as well as in genome integrity. Inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) is a high-throughput method to study the genetic diversity of plant species. Till date, there are no markers based on Transposable Elements (TEs) for the bamboo genome and no reports on bamboo genetic diversity using the IRAP method. Phyllostachys is an Asian bamboo, the largest group in the bamboo subfamily, Bambusoideae, and it is of great economic value due to its fast growth. The structure of LTR-retrotransposon superfamilies, Ty3-gypsy and Ty1-copia, were analysed in the bamboo genome using LTRharvest and LTRdigest software. A total of 98,850 LTR retrotransposons with both ends of intact LTR sequences were identified, grouped into 64,281 clusters/scaffolds, using CD-HIT software. Among the total of 64,281 clusters, 13 clusters had more than 30 copy numbers of LTR sequences and at least one copy had all intact protein domains such as gag protein and polyprotein. Based on the high copy numbers of conserved LTR sequences, a total of 16 IRAP primers were developed. All these IRAP primers were used to study the genetic diversity and population structure of the Asian bamboo. AMOVA analysis was done for 58 Asian bamboo species collected from nine different provinces of China, from Italy and America. In the bamboo species, these IRAP primers produced a total of 3340 amplicons with an average of 98{\%} polymorphism. The 58 Asian bamboo species were grouped into two major clusters and four sub-clusters, based on UPGMA analysis. UPGMA cluster analysis was corroborated by statistical analyses of genetic similarity coefficients. Structure analysis showed that the bamboo species could be divided into four subpopulations (K = 4): SP1, SP2, SP3 and SP4. All SPs had an admixture of alleles. AMOVA analysis showed that higher genetic variations occurred within populations (75{\%}) rather than among populations (25{\%}). The study highlights the usability of IRAP in Asian bamboo to determine inter-species variability using retrotransposon markers.",
author = "Shitian Li and Muthusamy Ramakrishnan and Vinod, {K. K.} and Ruslan Kalendar and Kim Yrj{\"a}l{\"a} and Mingbing Zhou",
year = "2020",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3390/f11010031",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
pages = "31",
journal = "Forests",
issn = "1999-4907",
publisher = "MDPI",
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Development and deployment of high-throughput retrotransposon-based markers reveal genetic diversity and population structure of Asian bamboo. / Li, Shitian ; Ramakrishnan, Muthusamy ; Vinod, K. K. ; Kalendar, Ruslan; Yrjälä, Kim ; Zhou, Mingbing .

julkaisussa: Forests, Vuosikerta 11, Nro 1, 01.01.2020, s. 31.

Tutkimustuotos: ArtikkelijulkaisuArtikkeliTieteellinenvertaisarvioitu

TY - JOUR

T1 - Development and deployment of high-throughput retrotransposon-based markers reveal genetic diversity and population structure of Asian bamboo

AU - Li, Shitian

AU - Ramakrishnan, Muthusamy

AU - Vinod, K. K.

AU - Kalendar, Ruslan

AU - Yrjälä, Kim

AU - Zhou, Mingbing

PY - 2020/1/1

Y1 - 2020/1/1

N2 - Bamboo, a non-timber grass species, known for exceptionally fast growth, is a commercially viable crop. Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, the main class I mobile genetic elements in plant genomes, are highly abundant (46%) in bamboo contributing to genome diversity. They play significant roles in the regulation of gene expression, chromosome size and structure as well as in genome integrity. Inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) is a high-throughput method to study the genetic diversity of plant species. Till date, there are no markers based on Transposable Elements (TEs) for the bamboo genome and no reports on bamboo genetic diversity using the IRAP method. Phyllostachys is an Asian bamboo, the largest group in the bamboo subfamily, Bambusoideae, and it is of great economic value due to its fast growth. The structure of LTR-retrotransposon superfamilies, Ty3-gypsy and Ty1-copia, were analysed in the bamboo genome using LTRharvest and LTRdigest software. A total of 98,850 LTR retrotransposons with both ends of intact LTR sequences were identified, grouped into 64,281 clusters/scaffolds, using CD-HIT software. Among the total of 64,281 clusters, 13 clusters had more than 30 copy numbers of LTR sequences and at least one copy had all intact protein domains such as gag protein and polyprotein. Based on the high copy numbers of conserved LTR sequences, a total of 16 IRAP primers were developed. All these IRAP primers were used to study the genetic diversity and population structure of the Asian bamboo. AMOVA analysis was done for 58 Asian bamboo species collected from nine different provinces of China, from Italy and America. In the bamboo species, these IRAP primers produced a total of 3340 amplicons with an average of 98% polymorphism. The 58 Asian bamboo species were grouped into two major clusters and four sub-clusters, based on UPGMA analysis. UPGMA cluster analysis was corroborated by statistical analyses of genetic similarity coefficients. Structure analysis showed that the bamboo species could be divided into four subpopulations (K = 4): SP1, SP2, SP3 and SP4. All SPs had an admixture of alleles. AMOVA analysis showed that higher genetic variations occurred within populations (75%) rather than among populations (25%). The study highlights the usability of IRAP in Asian bamboo to determine inter-species variability using retrotransposon markers.

AB - Bamboo, a non-timber grass species, known for exceptionally fast growth, is a commercially viable crop. Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, the main class I mobile genetic elements in plant genomes, are highly abundant (46%) in bamboo contributing to genome diversity. They play significant roles in the regulation of gene expression, chromosome size and structure as well as in genome integrity. Inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) is a high-throughput method to study the genetic diversity of plant species. Till date, there are no markers based on Transposable Elements (TEs) for the bamboo genome and no reports on bamboo genetic diversity using the IRAP method. Phyllostachys is an Asian bamboo, the largest group in the bamboo subfamily, Bambusoideae, and it is of great economic value due to its fast growth. The structure of LTR-retrotransposon superfamilies, Ty3-gypsy and Ty1-copia, were analysed in the bamboo genome using LTRharvest and LTRdigest software. A total of 98,850 LTR retrotransposons with both ends of intact LTR sequences were identified, grouped into 64,281 clusters/scaffolds, using CD-HIT software. Among the total of 64,281 clusters, 13 clusters had more than 30 copy numbers of LTR sequences and at least one copy had all intact protein domains such as gag protein and polyprotein. Based on the high copy numbers of conserved LTR sequences, a total of 16 IRAP primers were developed. All these IRAP primers were used to study the genetic diversity and population structure of the Asian bamboo. AMOVA analysis was done for 58 Asian bamboo species collected from nine different provinces of China, from Italy and America. In the bamboo species, these IRAP primers produced a total of 3340 amplicons with an average of 98% polymorphism. The 58 Asian bamboo species were grouped into two major clusters and four sub-clusters, based on UPGMA analysis. UPGMA cluster analysis was corroborated by statistical analyses of genetic similarity coefficients. Structure analysis showed that the bamboo species could be divided into four subpopulations (K = 4): SP1, SP2, SP3 and SP4. All SPs had an admixture of alleles. AMOVA analysis showed that higher genetic variations occurred within populations (75%) rather than among populations (25%). The study highlights the usability of IRAP in Asian bamboo to determine inter-species variability using retrotransposon markers.

U2 - 10.3390/f11010031

DO - 10.3390/f11010031

M3 - Article

VL - 11

SP - 31

JO - Forests

JF - Forests

SN - 1999-4907

IS - 1

ER -