Epstein-Barr Virus in the Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood Compartments of Patients With Multiple Sclerosis and Controls

Tutkimustuotos: ArtikkelijulkaisuArtikkeliTieteellinenvertaisarvioitu


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a major risk factor of multiple sclerosis (MS). We examined the presence of EBV DNA in the CSF and blood of patients with MS and controls. We analyzed whether EBV DNA is more common in the CSF of patients with MS than in controls and estimated the proportions of EBV-positive B cells in the CSF and blood. METHODS: CSF supernatants and cells were collected at diagnostic lumbar punctures from 45 patients with MS and 45 HLA-DR15 matched controls with other conditions, all participants were EBV seropositive. Cellular DNA was amplified by Phi polymerase targeting both host and viral DNA, and representative samples were obtained in 28 cases and 28 controls. Nonamplified DNA from CSF cells (14 cases, 14 controls) and blood B cells (10 cases, 10 controls) were analyzed in a subset of participants. Multiple droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) runs were performed per sample to assess the cumulative EBV positivity rate. To detect viral RNA as a sign of activation, RNA sequencing was performed in blood CD4-positive, CD8-positive, and CD19-positive cells from 21 patients with MS and 3 controls. RESULTS: One of the 45 patients with MS and none of the 45 controls were positive for EBV DNA in CSF supernatants (1 mL). CSF cellular DNA was analyzed in 8 independent ddPCRs: EBV DNA was detected at least once in 18 (64%) of the 28 patients with MS and in 15 (54%) of the 28 controls (p = 0.59, Fisher test). The cumulative EBV positivity increased steadily up to 59% in the successive ddPCRs, suggesting that all individuals would have reached EBV positivity in the CSF cells, if more DNA would have been analyzed. The estimated proportion of EBV-positive B cells was >1/10,000 in both the CSF and blood. We did not detect viral RNA, except from endogenous retroviruses, in the blood lymphocyte subpopulations. DISCUSSION: EBV-DNA is equally detectable in the CSF cells of both patients with MS and controls with ddPCR, and the probabilistic approach indicates that the true positivity rate approaches 100% in EBV-positive individuals. The proportion of EBV-positive B cells seems higher than previously estimated.

LehtiNeurology(R) neuroimmunology & neuroinflammation
DOI - pysyväislinkit
TilaJulkaistu - 1 toukok. 2024
OKM-julkaisutyyppiA1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä, vertaisarvioitu


  • 3124 Neurologia ja psykiatria

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