We study the adaptive dynamics of the colonization rate of species living in a patchy habitat when there is a trade-off with the competitive strength for individual patches. To that end, we formulate a continuous-time competition-colonization model that also includes ownership effects as well as random disturbance affecting the mortality rate. We find that intermediate disturbance (as measured by the fluctuation intensity of the mortality rate), a strong competition-colonization trade-off, and a weak ownership effect are necessary conditions for evolutionary branching and hence for the emergence of polymorphisms (i.e., coexistence) by small evolutionary steps. Specifically, concerning ownership we find that with low-intermediate disturbance, a weak ownership advantage favours evolutionary branching while ownership disadvantage does not. This asymmetry disappears at the higher-intermediate disturbance. Moreover, at a low-intermediate disturbance, the effect of the strength of the competition-colonization trade-off on evolutionary branching is non-monotonic disappears because the possibility of branching disappears again when the trade-off is too strong. We also find that there can be multiple evolutionary attractors for polymorphic populations, each with its own basin of attraction. With small but non-zero random evolutionary steps and depending on the initial polymorphic condition just after branching, a coevolutionary trajectory may come arbitrarily close to the shared boundary of two such basins and may even jump from one side to the other, which can lead to various kinds of long-term evolutionary dynamics, including evolutionary branching-extinction cycles. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
- 111 Matematiikka
- 1181 Ekologia, evoluutiobiologia