This paper presents the development of air quality low-cost sensors (LCS) with improved accuracy features. The LCS features integrate machine learning based calibration models and virtual sensors. LCS performances are analyzed and some LCS variables with low performance are improved through intelligent field-calibrations. Meteorological variables are calibrated using linear dynamic models. While, due to the non-linear relationship to reference instruments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are calibrated using non-linear machine learning models. However, due to sensor drifts or faults, carbon dioxide (CO2) does not present correlation to reference instrument. As a result, the LCS for CO2 is not feasible to be calibrated. Hence, to estimate the CO2 concentration, mathematical models are developed to be integrated in the calibrated LCS, known as a virtual sensor. In addition, another virtual sensor is developed to demonstrate the capability of estimating air pollutant concentrations, e.g. black carbon, when the physical sensor devices are not available. In our paper, calibration models and virtual sensors are established using corresponding reference instruments that are installed on two reference stations. This strategy generalizes the models of calibration and virtual sensing which then allows LCS to be deployed in field independently with a high accuracy. Our proposed methodology enables scaling-up accurate air pollution mapping appropriate for smart cities.
LehtiIEEE Sensors Journal
DOI - pysyväislinkit
TilaJulkaistu - 15 marraskuuta 2020
OKM-julkaisutyyppiA1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä, vertaisarvioitu


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