Although best known from its functions in the cytoplasm, actin also localizes to the cell nucleus, where it has been linked to many essential functions from regulation of gene expression to maintenance of genomic integrity. While majority of cytoplasmic functions of actin depend on controlled actin polymerization, in the nucleus both actin monomers and filaments have their own specific roles. Actin monomers are core components of several chromatin remodeling and modifying complexes and can also regulate the activity of specific transcription factors, while actin filaments have been linked to DNA damage response and cell cycle progression. Consequently the balance between monomeric and filamentous actin must be precise controlled also in the nucleus, since their effects are dynamically coupled. In this review, we discuss the recent data on how actin dynamics is regulated within the nucleus and how this influences the different nuclear processes dependent on actin.
- 1184 Genetiikka, kehitysbiologia, fysiologia