Nutrient scoring for the DEGS1-FFQ – from food intake to nutrient intake

Ronja Thieleking, Lennard Schneidewind, Arsene Kanyamibwa, Hendrik Hartmann, Annette Horstmann, Anja Veronica Witte, Evelyn Medawar

Tutkimustuotos: TyöpaperiTieteellinen


Background: While necessary for studying dietary decision-making or public health, estimates of nutrient supply based on self-reported food intake are barely accessible or fully lacking and remain a challenge in human research. In particular, detailed information on dietary fiber is limited. In this study we introduce an automated openly available approach to assess self-reported nutrient intake for research purposes for a popular, validated German food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).
Methods: To this end, we i) developed and shared a code for assessing nutrients (carbohydrates, fat, protein, sugar, fiber...) for 53 items of the quantitative, validated German DEGS1-FFQ questionnaire implementing expert-guided nutritional values of diverse sources with several raters. In a sample of individuals (nGUT-BRAIN = 61 (21 female) overweight, omnivorous), we ii) cross-validated nutrient intake of the last 7 days and the last 24 hours and iii) computed test-retest reliability across two timepoints. Further, iv) we report newly computed nutrient intake for two independent cross-sectional cohorts with continuous weight status and different dietary habits (nMensa= 134 (79 female, 1 diverse), nGREADT = 76 male). Exploratively, we correlated computed nutrient intake with v) anthropometric and vi) blood-based biomarkers.
Results: In overweight adults (n= 61 (21 female), mean age 28.2±6.5 years, BMI 27.4±1.6 kg/m2) nutrient intakes were mostly normally distributed and within or surpassing recommended reference nutrient ranges for both last 7 days and last 24 hours. Reliability between last 7 days and 24 hours per visit was moderate (Pearson’s rall≥ 0.34, pall < 0.001, rmax = 0.54) and absolute agreement across two timepoints was moderate for 7 days (kappaall > 0.40, pall < 0.001) and poor for 24 hours (kappaall> 0.08, pall < 0.001). Associations of dietary components to anthropometric markers showed distinct sex differences, with overall higher intake by males compared to females and opposite associations of fiber intake and BMI in males compared to females. Links between nutrient intake relative to calorie intake and anthropometrics as well as serum markers remain inconclusive.
Conclusion: We provide an openly available tool to systematically assess nutrient intake, including fiber, based on self-report by a common German FFQ. The computed nutrient scores resembled overall plausible and reliable measures of nutrient intake given the known limitations of FFQs regarding over- or underreporting. Our open code nutrient scoring can help to examine dietary intake in experimental studies, including dietary fiber and its subclasses, and can be readily adapted to other FFQs. Further validation of computed nutrients with biomarkers and nutrient-specific metabolites in serum, urine or feces will help to interpret self-reported dietary intake.
KustantajaResearch Square
DOI - pysyväislinkit
TilaE-pub ahead of print - 2022
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