Parent-child-relationship quality predicts offspring dispositional compassion in adulthood: A prospective follow-up study over three decades

Mirka Hintsanen, Kia Gluschkoff, Henrik Dobewall, C. Robert Cloninger, Dacher Keltner, Aino Saarinen, Karolina Wesolowska, Salla-Maarit Volanen, Olli T. Raitakari, Laura Pulkki-Råback

Tutkimustuotos: ArtikkelijulkaisuArtikkeliTieteellinenvertaisarvioitu

Kuvaus

Compassion is known to predict prosocial behavior and moral judgments related to harm. Despite the centrality of compassion to social life, factors predicting adulthood compassion are largely unknown. We examined whether qualities of parent-child-relationship, namely, emotional warmth and acceptance, predict offspring compassion decades later in adulthood. We used data from the prospective population-based Young Finns Study. Our sample included 2,761 participants (55.5% women). Parent-child-relationship qualities were reported by each participant's parents at baseline in 1980 (T0) when participants were between 3 and 18 years old. Compassion was self-reported 3 times: in 1997 (T1), 2001 (T2), and 2012 (T3) with the Temperament and Character Inventory (Cloninger, Przybeck, Svrakic, & Wetzel, 1994). By using age at the assessment as a time-variant variable, we applied multilevel modeling for repeated measurements to examine developmental trajectories of compassion from the ages of 20 (the age of the youngest cohort at T1) to 50 (the age of the oldest cohort at T3). On average, compassion increased in a curvilinear pattern with age. Higher acceptance (p = .013) and higher emotional warmth (p <.001) were related to higher compassion in adulthood. After adjusting for childhood confounds (i.e., participant gender, birth cohort, externalizing behavior, parental socioeconomic status, and parental mental health problems), only emotional warmth (p <.001) remained a significant predictor of compassion. Quality of the parent-child-relationship has long-term effects on offspring compassion. An emotionally warm and close relationship, in particular, may contribute to higher offspring compassion in adulthood.

Alkuperäiskielienglanti
LehtiDevelopmental Psychology
Vuosikerta55
Numero1
Sivut216-225
Sivumäärä10
ISSN0012-1649
DOI - pysyväislinkit
TilaJulkaistu - tammikuuta 2019
OKM-julkaisutyyppiA1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä, vertaisarvioitu

Tieteenalat

  • 515 Psykologia

Lainaa tätä

@article{16b8c810772f49f8a6738d4f9a7a5c01,
title = "Parent-child-relationship quality predicts offspring dispositional compassion in adulthood: A prospective follow-up study over three decades",
abstract = "Compassion is known to predict prosocial behavior and moral judgments related to harm. Despite the centrality of compassion to social life, factors predicting adulthood compassion are largely unknown. We examined whether qualities of parent-child-relationship, namely, emotional warmth and acceptance, predict offspring compassion decades later in adulthood. We used data from the prospective population-based Young Finns Study. Our sample included 2,761 participants (55.5{\%} women). Parent-child-relationship qualities were reported by each participant's parents at baseline in 1980 (T0) when participants were between 3 and 18 years old. Compassion was self-reported 3 times: in 1997 (T1), 2001 (T2), and 2012 (T3) with the Temperament and Character Inventory (Cloninger, Przybeck, Svrakic, & Wetzel, 1994). By using age at the assessment as a time-variant variable, we applied multilevel modeling for repeated measurements to examine developmental trajectories of compassion from the ages of 20 (the age of the youngest cohort at T1) to 50 (the age of the oldest cohort at T3). On average, compassion increased in a curvilinear pattern with age. Higher acceptance (p = .013) and higher emotional warmth (p <.001) were related to higher compassion in adulthood. After adjusting for childhood confounds (i.e., participant gender, birth cohort, externalizing behavior, parental socioeconomic status, and parental mental health problems), only emotional warmth (p <.001) remained a significant predictor of compassion. Quality of the parent-child-relationship has long-term effects on offspring compassion. An emotionally warm and close relationship, in particular, may contribute to higher offspring compassion in adulthood.",
keywords = "compassion, parenting, parent-child-relationship, warmth, acceptance, AMERICAN-COLLEGE STUDENTS, CHARACTER DIMENSIONS, PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR, EMPATHIC CONCERN, TEMPERAMENT, PERSONALITY, WARMTH, ASSOCIATIONS, ORIGINS, MOTHERS, 515 Psychology",
author = "Mirka Hintsanen and Kia Gluschkoff and Henrik Dobewall and Cloninger, {C. Robert} and Dacher Keltner and Aino Saarinen and Karolina Wesolowska and Salla-Maarit Volanen and Raitakari, {Olli T.} and Laura Pulkki-R{\aa}back",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1037/dev0000633",
language = "English",
volume = "55",
pages = "216--225",
journal = "Developmental Psychology",
issn = "0012-1649",
publisher = "American Psychological Association (APA)",
number = "1",

}

Parent-child-relationship quality predicts offspring dispositional compassion in adulthood : A prospective follow-up study over three decades. / Hintsanen, Mirka; Gluschkoff, Kia; Dobewall, Henrik; Cloninger, C. Robert; Keltner, Dacher; Saarinen, Aino; Wesolowska, Karolina; Volanen, Salla-Maarit; Raitakari, Olli T.; Pulkki-Råback, Laura.

julkaisussa: Developmental Psychology, Vuosikerta 55, Nro 1, 01.2019, s. 216-225.

Tutkimustuotos: ArtikkelijulkaisuArtikkeliTieteellinenvertaisarvioitu

TY - JOUR

T1 - Parent-child-relationship quality predicts offspring dispositional compassion in adulthood

T2 - A prospective follow-up study over three decades

AU - Hintsanen, Mirka

AU - Gluschkoff, Kia

AU - Dobewall, Henrik

AU - Cloninger, C. Robert

AU - Keltner, Dacher

AU - Saarinen, Aino

AU - Wesolowska, Karolina

AU - Volanen, Salla-Maarit

AU - Raitakari, Olli T.

AU - Pulkki-Råback, Laura

PY - 2019/1

Y1 - 2019/1

N2 - Compassion is known to predict prosocial behavior and moral judgments related to harm. Despite the centrality of compassion to social life, factors predicting adulthood compassion are largely unknown. We examined whether qualities of parent-child-relationship, namely, emotional warmth and acceptance, predict offspring compassion decades later in adulthood. We used data from the prospective population-based Young Finns Study. Our sample included 2,761 participants (55.5% women). Parent-child-relationship qualities were reported by each participant's parents at baseline in 1980 (T0) when participants were between 3 and 18 years old. Compassion was self-reported 3 times: in 1997 (T1), 2001 (T2), and 2012 (T3) with the Temperament and Character Inventory (Cloninger, Przybeck, Svrakic, & Wetzel, 1994). By using age at the assessment as a time-variant variable, we applied multilevel modeling for repeated measurements to examine developmental trajectories of compassion from the ages of 20 (the age of the youngest cohort at T1) to 50 (the age of the oldest cohort at T3). On average, compassion increased in a curvilinear pattern with age. Higher acceptance (p = .013) and higher emotional warmth (p <.001) were related to higher compassion in adulthood. After adjusting for childhood confounds (i.e., participant gender, birth cohort, externalizing behavior, parental socioeconomic status, and parental mental health problems), only emotional warmth (p <.001) remained a significant predictor of compassion. Quality of the parent-child-relationship has long-term effects on offspring compassion. An emotionally warm and close relationship, in particular, may contribute to higher offspring compassion in adulthood.

AB - Compassion is known to predict prosocial behavior and moral judgments related to harm. Despite the centrality of compassion to social life, factors predicting adulthood compassion are largely unknown. We examined whether qualities of parent-child-relationship, namely, emotional warmth and acceptance, predict offspring compassion decades later in adulthood. We used data from the prospective population-based Young Finns Study. Our sample included 2,761 participants (55.5% women). Parent-child-relationship qualities were reported by each participant's parents at baseline in 1980 (T0) when participants were between 3 and 18 years old. Compassion was self-reported 3 times: in 1997 (T1), 2001 (T2), and 2012 (T3) with the Temperament and Character Inventory (Cloninger, Przybeck, Svrakic, & Wetzel, 1994). By using age at the assessment as a time-variant variable, we applied multilevel modeling for repeated measurements to examine developmental trajectories of compassion from the ages of 20 (the age of the youngest cohort at T1) to 50 (the age of the oldest cohort at T3). On average, compassion increased in a curvilinear pattern with age. Higher acceptance (p = .013) and higher emotional warmth (p <.001) were related to higher compassion in adulthood. After adjusting for childhood confounds (i.e., participant gender, birth cohort, externalizing behavior, parental socioeconomic status, and parental mental health problems), only emotional warmth (p <.001) remained a significant predictor of compassion. Quality of the parent-child-relationship has long-term effects on offspring compassion. An emotionally warm and close relationship, in particular, may contribute to higher offspring compassion in adulthood.

KW - compassion

KW - parenting

KW - parent-child-relationship

KW - warmth

KW - acceptance

KW - AMERICAN-COLLEGE STUDENTS

KW - CHARACTER DIMENSIONS

KW - PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR

KW - EMPATHIC CONCERN

KW - TEMPERAMENT

KW - PERSONALITY

KW - WARMTH

KW - ASSOCIATIONS

KW - ORIGINS

KW - MOTHERS

KW - 515 Psychology

U2 - 10.1037/dev0000633

DO - 10.1037/dev0000633

M3 - Article

VL - 55

SP - 216

EP - 225

JO - Developmental Psychology

JF - Developmental Psychology

SN - 0012-1649

IS - 1

ER -