Context Spatial patterns of CH4 fluxes can be modeled with remotely sensed data representing land cover, soil moisture and topography. Spatially extensive CH4 flux measurements conducted with portable analyzers have not been previously upscaled with remote sensing. Objectives How well can the CH4 fluxes be predicted with plot-based vegetation measures and remote sensing? How does the predictive skill of the model change when using different combinations of predictor variables? Methods We measured CH4 fluxes in 279 plots in a 12.4 km(2) peatland-forest-mosaic landscape in Pallas area, northern Finland in July 2019. We compared 20 different CH4 flux maps produced with vegetation field data and remote sensing data including Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and digital terrain model (DTM). Results The landscape acted as a net source of CH4 (253-502 mu g m(-2) h(-1)) and the proportion of source areas varied considerably between maps (12-50%). The amount of explained variance was high in CH4 regressions (59-76%, nRMSE 8-10%). Regressions including remote sensing predictors had better performance than regressions with plot-based vegetation predictors. The most important remote sensing predictors included VH-polarized Sentinel-1 features together with topographic wetness index and other DTM features. Spatial patterns were most accurately predicted when the landscape was divided into sinks and sources with remote sensing-based classifications, and the fluxes were modeled for sinks and sources separately. Conclusions CH4 fluxes can be predicted accurately with multi-source remote sensing in northern boreal peatland landscapes. High spatial resolution remote sensing-based maps constrain uncertainties related to CH4 fluxes and their spatial patterns.
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