RAD51C is a tumor suppressor in mammary and sebaceous glands

Tutkimustuotos: OpinnäyteVäitöskirjaArtikkelikokoelma

Kuvaus

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the most common cancer among women. Germ-line mutations in the DNA repair gene RAD51C (RAD51 paralog C) predispose women to breast and ovarian cancers, yet the mechanisms by which a lack of RAD51C causes tumorigenesis are poorly understood. RAD51C deficiency is thought to promote cancer by preventing correct repair of DNA double-strand breaks, leading to accumulation of somatic mutations and genomic instability, a cancer hallmark. Similarly, defects in other genes involved in repair of DNA double-strand breaks, such as BRCA1 (breast cancer 1, early onset), BRCA2 (breast cancer 2, early onset), or PALB2 (partner and localizer of BRCA2), are linked to breast cancer, suggesting that the mammary gland is particularly susceptible to genomic instability. We know that RAD51C-null cells from several organisms present a number of chromosomal aberrations, and Rad51c knockout mice die during early embryogenesis from massive Trp53-mediated apoptosis. A previously generated mouse model demonstrated that when Rad51c is lost together with Trp53, multiple tumors develop approximately at one year of age. However, while Trp53 knock-out mice predominantly develop osteo- and myosarcomas, a spontaneous loss of both Rad51c and Trp53 in double-mutant mice leads mostly to development of epithelial-derived carcinomas, especially in mammary glands, skin, and skin-associated specialized sebaceous glands. While suggesting a possible role for Trp53 in the Rad51c-mediated tumorigenesis, this study left several questions unaddressed. First, the ability of Rad51c loss to induce tumor formation independently of Trp53 stood as an open question. Second, the mechanisms by which Rad51c might cause malignant transformation remained unclear. Last, there was complete absence of information about the role of RAD51C in the mammary gland. We set out to fill these gaps by generating a skin and skin-associated Rad51c knock-out mouse model. For this purpose, we conditionally deleted Rad51c and/or Trp53 from basal cells of the epidermis and ectodermal-derived glands using Keratin 14 Cre-mediated recombination. With this model, we demonstrated that deletion of Rad51c alone is not sufficient to drive tumorigenesis but impairs the proliferation of sebaceous cells and causes their transdifferentiation into terminally differentiated keratinocytes. In addition, we reported that Rad51c/p53 double mutant mice develop multiple tumors in skin and mammary and sebaceous glands at around six months of age, while Trp53-mutants have a tumor-free survival of 11 months and a lower tumor burden. We also observed that in situ carcinomas are detectable in Rad51c/p53 double mutant mice as early as four months of age, which provided a tool for studying the early phases of tumorigenesis. Notably, we reported that mouse mammary tumors recapitulate several histological features of human RAD51C-associated breast cancers, especially a luminal-like, hormone receptor-positive status. Finally, we described that loss of RAD51C causes chromosomal aberrations in both mouse and human cells, providing a direct translational link between the phenotype observed in the two species.
Alkuperäiskielienglanti
JulkaisupaikkaHelsinki
Kustantaja
Painoksen ISBN978-951-51-1463-1
Sähköinen ISBN978-951-51-1464-8
TilaJulkaistu - 2015
OKM-julkaisutyyppiG5 Tohtorinväitöskirja (artikkeli)

Tieteenalat

  • 1184 Genetiikka, kehitysbiologia, fysiologia
  • 3111 Biolääketieteet

Lainaa tätä

Tumiati, Manuela. / RAD51C is a tumor suppressor in mammary and sebaceous glands. Helsinki : University of Helsinki, 2015. 88 Sivumäärä
@phdthesis{a657f381e08e4750b25adb3ca84edf6c,
title = "RAD51C is a tumor suppressor in mammary and sebaceous glands",
abstract = "Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the most common cancer among women. Germ-line mutations in the DNA repair gene RAD51C (RAD51 paralog C) predispose women to breast and ovarian cancers, yet the mechanisms by which a lack of RAD51C causes tumorigenesis are poorly understood. RAD51C deficiency is thought to promote cancer by preventing correct repair of DNA double-strand breaks, leading to accumulation of somatic mutations and genomic instability, a cancer hallmark. Similarly, defects in other genes involved in repair of DNA double-strand breaks, such as BRCA1 (breast cancer 1, early onset), BRCA2 (breast cancer 2, early onset), or PALB2 (partner and localizer of BRCA2), are linked to breast cancer, suggesting that the mammary gland is particularly susceptible to genomic instability. We know that RAD51C-null cells from several organisms present a number of chromosomal aberrations, and Rad51c knockout mice die during early embryogenesis from massive Trp53-mediated apoptosis. A previously generated mouse model demonstrated that when Rad51c is lost together with Trp53, multiple tumors develop approximately at one year of age. However, while Trp53 knock-out mice predominantly develop osteo- and myosarcomas, a spontaneous loss of both Rad51c and Trp53 in double-mutant mice leads mostly to development of epithelial-derived carcinomas, especially in mammary glands, skin, and skin-associated specialized sebaceous glands. While suggesting a possible role for Trp53 in the Rad51c-mediated tumorigenesis, this study left several questions unaddressed. First, the ability of Rad51c loss to induce tumor formation independently of Trp53 stood as an open question. Second, the mechanisms by which Rad51c might cause malignant transformation remained unclear. Last, there was complete absence of information about the role of RAD51C in the mammary gland. We set out to fill these gaps by generating a skin and skin-associated Rad51c knock-out mouse model. For this purpose, we conditionally deleted Rad51c and/or Trp53 from basal cells of the epidermis and ectodermal-derived glands using Keratin 14 Cre-mediated recombination. With this model, we demonstrated that deletion of Rad51c alone is not sufficient to drive tumorigenesis but impairs the proliferation of sebaceous cells and causes their transdifferentiation into terminally differentiated keratinocytes. In addition, we reported that Rad51c/p53 double mutant mice develop multiple tumors in skin and mammary and sebaceous glands at around six months of age, while Trp53-mutants have a tumor-free survival of 11 months and a lower tumor burden. We also observed that in situ carcinomas are detectable in Rad51c/p53 double mutant mice as early as four months of age, which provided a tool for studying the early phases of tumorigenesis. Notably, we reported that mouse mammary tumors recapitulate several histological features of human RAD51C-associated breast cancers, especially a luminal-like, hormone receptor-positive status. Finally, we described that loss of RAD51C causes chromosomal aberrations in both mouse and human cells, providing a direct translational link between the phenotype observed in the two species.",
keywords = "Carcinogenesis, +genetics, Cell Transformation, Neoplastic, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Mammary Glands, Animal, +pathology, Mammary Neoplasms, Animal, Mice, Knockout, Mutation, Rad51 Recombinase, Sebaceous Glands, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53, 1184 Genetics, developmental biology, physiology, 3111 Biomedicine",
author = "Manuela Tumiati",
note = "M1 - 88 s. + liitteet Helsingin yliopisto Volume: Proceeding volume:",
year = "2015",
language = "English",
isbn = "978-951-51-1463-1",
series = "Dissertationes Scholae Doctoralis Ad Sanitatem Investigandam Universitatis Helsinkiensis",
publisher = "University of Helsinki",
number = "68/2015",
address = "Finland",

}

RAD51C is a tumor suppressor in mammary and sebaceous glands. / Tumiati, Manuela.

Helsinki : University of Helsinki, 2015. 88 s.

Tutkimustuotos: OpinnäyteVäitöskirjaArtikkelikokoelma

TY - THES

T1 - RAD51C is a tumor suppressor in mammary and sebaceous glands

AU - Tumiati, Manuela

N1 - M1 - 88 s. + liitteet Helsingin yliopisto Volume: Proceeding volume:

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the most common cancer among women. Germ-line mutations in the DNA repair gene RAD51C (RAD51 paralog C) predispose women to breast and ovarian cancers, yet the mechanisms by which a lack of RAD51C causes tumorigenesis are poorly understood. RAD51C deficiency is thought to promote cancer by preventing correct repair of DNA double-strand breaks, leading to accumulation of somatic mutations and genomic instability, a cancer hallmark. Similarly, defects in other genes involved in repair of DNA double-strand breaks, such as BRCA1 (breast cancer 1, early onset), BRCA2 (breast cancer 2, early onset), or PALB2 (partner and localizer of BRCA2), are linked to breast cancer, suggesting that the mammary gland is particularly susceptible to genomic instability. We know that RAD51C-null cells from several organisms present a number of chromosomal aberrations, and Rad51c knockout mice die during early embryogenesis from massive Trp53-mediated apoptosis. A previously generated mouse model demonstrated that when Rad51c is lost together with Trp53, multiple tumors develop approximately at one year of age. However, while Trp53 knock-out mice predominantly develop osteo- and myosarcomas, a spontaneous loss of both Rad51c and Trp53 in double-mutant mice leads mostly to development of epithelial-derived carcinomas, especially in mammary glands, skin, and skin-associated specialized sebaceous glands. While suggesting a possible role for Trp53 in the Rad51c-mediated tumorigenesis, this study left several questions unaddressed. First, the ability of Rad51c loss to induce tumor formation independently of Trp53 stood as an open question. Second, the mechanisms by which Rad51c might cause malignant transformation remained unclear. Last, there was complete absence of information about the role of RAD51C in the mammary gland. We set out to fill these gaps by generating a skin and skin-associated Rad51c knock-out mouse model. For this purpose, we conditionally deleted Rad51c and/or Trp53 from basal cells of the epidermis and ectodermal-derived glands using Keratin 14 Cre-mediated recombination. With this model, we demonstrated that deletion of Rad51c alone is not sufficient to drive tumorigenesis but impairs the proliferation of sebaceous cells and causes their transdifferentiation into terminally differentiated keratinocytes. In addition, we reported that Rad51c/p53 double mutant mice develop multiple tumors in skin and mammary and sebaceous glands at around six months of age, while Trp53-mutants have a tumor-free survival of 11 months and a lower tumor burden. We also observed that in situ carcinomas are detectable in Rad51c/p53 double mutant mice as early as four months of age, which provided a tool for studying the early phases of tumorigenesis. Notably, we reported that mouse mammary tumors recapitulate several histological features of human RAD51C-associated breast cancers, especially a luminal-like, hormone receptor-positive status. Finally, we described that loss of RAD51C causes chromosomal aberrations in both mouse and human cells, providing a direct translational link between the phenotype observed in the two species.

AB - Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the most common cancer among women. Germ-line mutations in the DNA repair gene RAD51C (RAD51 paralog C) predispose women to breast and ovarian cancers, yet the mechanisms by which a lack of RAD51C causes tumorigenesis are poorly understood. RAD51C deficiency is thought to promote cancer by preventing correct repair of DNA double-strand breaks, leading to accumulation of somatic mutations and genomic instability, a cancer hallmark. Similarly, defects in other genes involved in repair of DNA double-strand breaks, such as BRCA1 (breast cancer 1, early onset), BRCA2 (breast cancer 2, early onset), or PALB2 (partner and localizer of BRCA2), are linked to breast cancer, suggesting that the mammary gland is particularly susceptible to genomic instability. We know that RAD51C-null cells from several organisms present a number of chromosomal aberrations, and Rad51c knockout mice die during early embryogenesis from massive Trp53-mediated apoptosis. A previously generated mouse model demonstrated that when Rad51c is lost together with Trp53, multiple tumors develop approximately at one year of age. However, while Trp53 knock-out mice predominantly develop osteo- and myosarcomas, a spontaneous loss of both Rad51c and Trp53 in double-mutant mice leads mostly to development of epithelial-derived carcinomas, especially in mammary glands, skin, and skin-associated specialized sebaceous glands. While suggesting a possible role for Trp53 in the Rad51c-mediated tumorigenesis, this study left several questions unaddressed. First, the ability of Rad51c loss to induce tumor formation independently of Trp53 stood as an open question. Second, the mechanisms by which Rad51c might cause malignant transformation remained unclear. Last, there was complete absence of information about the role of RAD51C in the mammary gland. We set out to fill these gaps by generating a skin and skin-associated Rad51c knock-out mouse model. For this purpose, we conditionally deleted Rad51c and/or Trp53 from basal cells of the epidermis and ectodermal-derived glands using Keratin 14 Cre-mediated recombination. With this model, we demonstrated that deletion of Rad51c alone is not sufficient to drive tumorigenesis but impairs the proliferation of sebaceous cells and causes their transdifferentiation into terminally differentiated keratinocytes. In addition, we reported that Rad51c/p53 double mutant mice develop multiple tumors in skin and mammary and sebaceous glands at around six months of age, while Trp53-mutants have a tumor-free survival of 11 months and a lower tumor burden. We also observed that in situ carcinomas are detectable in Rad51c/p53 double mutant mice as early as four months of age, which provided a tool for studying the early phases of tumorigenesis. Notably, we reported that mouse mammary tumors recapitulate several histological features of human RAD51C-associated breast cancers, especially a luminal-like, hormone receptor-positive status. Finally, we described that loss of RAD51C causes chromosomal aberrations in both mouse and human cells, providing a direct translational link between the phenotype observed in the two species.

KW - Carcinogenesis

KW - +genetics

KW - Cell Transformation, Neoplastic

KW - Genetic Predisposition to Disease

KW - Mammary Glands, Animal

KW - +pathology

KW - Mammary Neoplasms, Animal

KW - Mice, Knockout

KW - Mutation

KW - Rad51 Recombinase

KW - Sebaceous Glands

KW - Tumor Suppressor Protein p53

KW - 1184 Genetics, developmental biology, physiology

KW - 3111 Biomedicine

M3 - Doctoral Thesis

SN - 978-951-51-1463-1

T3 - Dissertationes Scholae Doctoralis Ad Sanitatem Investigandam Universitatis Helsinkiensis

PB - University of Helsinki

CY - Helsinki

ER -

Tumiati M. RAD51C is a tumor suppressor in mammary and sebaceous glands. Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2015. 88 s. (Dissertationes Scholae Doctoralis Ad Sanitatem Investigandam Universitatis Helsinkiensis; 68/2015).