Three of the four histamine receptors have been identified in zebrafish. Whereas only one histamine receptor 1 gene (hrh1) is known, two copies of histamine receptor 2 (hrh2a and hrh2b) have been identified. Although initially only one gene encoding for histamine receptor 3 (hrh3) was recognized in zebrafish, the genome database contains information for two more hrh3-like genes, whereas no genes corresponding for histamine receptor 4 with expression mainly in the immune system have been identified. Hrh1 and hrh3 show prominent uneven expression in the zebrafish brain, with the strongest expression in the dorsal telencephalon. Quantitatively significant expression of hrh1, hrh2, and hrh3 can also be found in several peripheral organs. Whereas antagonists of hrh1, hrh2, and hrh3 all affect the locomotor activity of zebrafish larvae, interpretation of the data is hampered by a lack of information on receptor binding and signaling characteristics. Zebrafish mutants lacking any of the three histamine receptors have shown modest behavioral phenotypes, possibly due to genetic compensation. None of the receptor mutant fish have shown significant sleep phenotypes. Adult zebrafish lacking hrh3 display decreased locomotor activity. The zebrafish histamine system shows significant life-long plasticity: presenilin 1 mutant zebrafish develop an abnormally large number of histamine neurons and increased thigmotaxis and anxiety-related phenotype. Overexpression of histidine decarboxylase (hdc) in larval zebrafish is associated with an increased number of hypocretin neurons, whereas translation inhibition of hdc or exposure to α-fluoromethylhistidine leads to decreased numbers of hypocretin neurons. Current pharmacological evidence suggests that this may be mediated by hrh1. Further studies using acute, e.g., pharmacogenetic or optogenetic manipulation of selected components of brain circuits, are required to understand the full range of physiological functions of zebrafish histamine receptors.
|Otsikko||The Functional Roles of Histamine Receptors|
|Toimittajat||Kazuhiko Yanai, Maria Beatrice Passani|
|Kustantaja||Springer International Publishing|
|DOI - pysyväislinkit|
|Tila||Julkaistu - 2022|
|OKM-julkaisutyyppi||A3 Kirjan tai muun kokoomateoksen osa|
- 3111 Biolääketieteet