Underground Vertical Seismic Profiling with Conventional and Fiber-Optic Systems for Exploration in the Kylylahti Polymetallic Mine, Eastern Finland

Marko Riedel, Calin Cosma, Nicoleta Enescu, Emilia Koivisto, Kari Komminaho, Katri Vaittinen, Michal Malinowski

Tutkimustuotos: ArtikkelijulkaisuArtikkeliTieteellinenvertaisarvioitu

Kuvaus

Seismic reflection methods have been used for the exploration of mineral resources for several decades. However, despite their unmatched spatial resolution and depth penetration, they only have played a minor role in mineral discoveries so far. Instead, mining and exploration companies have traditionally focused more on the use of potential field, electric and electromagnetic methods. In this context, we present a case study of an underground Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) experiment, which was designed to image a (semi-)massive sulfide deposit located in the Kylylahti polymetallic mine in eastern Finland. For the measurement, we used a conventional VSP with three-component geophones and a novel fiber-optic Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) system. Both systems were deployed in boreholes located nearby the target sulfide deposit, and used in combination with an active seismic source that was fired from within the underground tunnels. With this setup, we successfully recorded seismic reflections from the deposit and its nearby geological contrasts. The recording systems provided data with a good signal-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution. In addition to the measurements, we generated a realistic synthetic dataset based on a detailed geological model derived from extensive drilling data and petrophysical laboratory analysis. Specific processing and imaging of the acquired and synthetic datasets yielded high-resolution reflectivity images. Joint analysis of these images and cross-validation with lithological logging data from 135 nearby boreholes led to successful interpretation of key geological contacts including the target sulfide mineralization. In conclusion, our experiment demonstrates the value of in-mine VSP measurements for detailed resource delineation in a complex geological setting. In particular, we emphasize the potential benefit of using fiber-optic DAS systems, which provide reflection data at sufficient quality with less logistical effort and a higher acquisition rate. This amounts to a lower total acquisition cost, which makes DAS a valuable tool for future mineral exploration activities.
Alkuperäiskielienglanti
Artikkeli538
LehtiMinerals
Vuosikerta8
Numero11
Sivumäärä21
ISSN2075-163X
DOI - pysyväislinkit
TilaJulkaistu - marraskuuta 2018
OKM-julkaisutyyppiA1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä, vertaisarvioitu

Tieteenalat

  • 1171 Geotieteet

Lainaa tätä

Riedel, Marko ; Cosma, Calin ; Enescu, Nicoleta ; Koivisto, Emilia ; Komminaho, Kari ; Vaittinen, Katri ; Malinowski, Michal. / Underground Vertical Seismic Profiling with Conventional and Fiber-Optic Systems for Exploration in the Kylylahti Polymetallic Mine, Eastern Finland. Julkaisussa: Minerals. 2018 ; Vuosikerta 8, Nro 11.
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title = "Underground Vertical Seismic Profiling with Conventional and Fiber-Optic Systems for Exploration in the Kylylahti Polymetallic Mine, Eastern Finland",
abstract = "Seismic reflection methods have been used for the exploration of mineral resources for several decades. However, despite their unmatched spatial resolution and depth penetration, they only have played a minor role in mineral discoveries so far. Instead, mining and exploration companies have traditionally focused more on the use of potential field, electric and electromagnetic methods. In this context, we present a case study of an underground Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) experiment, which was designed to image a (semi-)massive sulfide deposit located in the Kylylahti polymetallic mine in eastern Finland. For the measurement, we used a conventional VSP with three-component geophones and a novel fiber-optic Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) system. Both systems were deployed in boreholes located nearby the target sulfide deposit, and used in combination with an active seismic source that was fired from within the underground tunnels. With this setup, we successfully recorded seismic reflections from the deposit and its nearby geological contrasts. The recording systems provided data with a good signal-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution. In addition to the measurements, we generated a realistic synthetic dataset based on a detailed geological model derived from extensive drilling data and petrophysical laboratory analysis. Specific processing and imaging of the acquired and synthetic datasets yielded high-resolution reflectivity images. Joint analysis of these images and cross-validation with lithological logging data from 135 nearby boreholes led to successful interpretation of key geological contacts including the target sulfide mineralization. In conclusion, our experiment demonstrates the value of in-mine VSP measurements for detailed resource delineation in a complex geological setting. In particular, we emphasize the potential benefit of using fiber-optic DAS systems, which provide reflection data at sufficient quality with less logistical effort and a higher acquisition rate. This amounts to a lower total acquisition cost, which makes DAS a valuable tool for future mineral exploration activities.",
keywords = "1171 Geosciences, mineral exploration, reflection seismic imaging, hardrock seismics, vertical seismic profiling, distributed acoustic sensing, MASSIVE SULFIDE DEPOSITS, BASE-METAL EXPLORATION, CU-PGE DEPOSIT, NEW-BRUNSWICK, REFLECTION DATA, HOST ROCKS, GOLD MINE, VSP, OUTOKUMPU, INSIGHTS",
author = "Marko Riedel and Calin Cosma and Nicoleta Enescu and Emilia Koivisto and Kari Komminaho and Katri Vaittinen and Michal Malinowski",
year = "2018",
month = "11",
doi = "10.3390/min8110538",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
journal = "Minerals",
issn = "2075-163X",
publisher = "MDPI",
number = "11",

}

Underground Vertical Seismic Profiling with Conventional and Fiber-Optic Systems for Exploration in the Kylylahti Polymetallic Mine, Eastern Finland. / Riedel, Marko; Cosma, Calin; Enescu, Nicoleta; Koivisto, Emilia; Komminaho, Kari; Vaittinen, Katri; Malinowski, Michal.

julkaisussa: Minerals, Vuosikerta 8, Nro 11, 538, 11.2018.

Tutkimustuotos: ArtikkelijulkaisuArtikkeliTieteellinenvertaisarvioitu

TY - JOUR

T1 - Underground Vertical Seismic Profiling with Conventional and Fiber-Optic Systems for Exploration in the Kylylahti Polymetallic Mine, Eastern Finland

AU - Riedel, Marko

AU - Cosma, Calin

AU - Enescu, Nicoleta

AU - Koivisto, Emilia

AU - Komminaho, Kari

AU - Vaittinen, Katri

AU - Malinowski, Michal

PY - 2018/11

Y1 - 2018/11

N2 - Seismic reflection methods have been used for the exploration of mineral resources for several decades. However, despite their unmatched spatial resolution and depth penetration, they only have played a minor role in mineral discoveries so far. Instead, mining and exploration companies have traditionally focused more on the use of potential field, electric and electromagnetic methods. In this context, we present a case study of an underground Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) experiment, which was designed to image a (semi-)massive sulfide deposit located in the Kylylahti polymetallic mine in eastern Finland. For the measurement, we used a conventional VSP with three-component geophones and a novel fiber-optic Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) system. Both systems were deployed in boreholes located nearby the target sulfide deposit, and used in combination with an active seismic source that was fired from within the underground tunnels. With this setup, we successfully recorded seismic reflections from the deposit and its nearby geological contrasts. The recording systems provided data with a good signal-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution. In addition to the measurements, we generated a realistic synthetic dataset based on a detailed geological model derived from extensive drilling data and petrophysical laboratory analysis. Specific processing and imaging of the acquired and synthetic datasets yielded high-resolution reflectivity images. Joint analysis of these images and cross-validation with lithological logging data from 135 nearby boreholes led to successful interpretation of key geological contacts including the target sulfide mineralization. In conclusion, our experiment demonstrates the value of in-mine VSP measurements for detailed resource delineation in a complex geological setting. In particular, we emphasize the potential benefit of using fiber-optic DAS systems, which provide reflection data at sufficient quality with less logistical effort and a higher acquisition rate. This amounts to a lower total acquisition cost, which makes DAS a valuable tool for future mineral exploration activities.

AB - Seismic reflection methods have been used for the exploration of mineral resources for several decades. However, despite their unmatched spatial resolution and depth penetration, they only have played a minor role in mineral discoveries so far. Instead, mining and exploration companies have traditionally focused more on the use of potential field, electric and electromagnetic methods. In this context, we present a case study of an underground Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) experiment, which was designed to image a (semi-)massive sulfide deposit located in the Kylylahti polymetallic mine in eastern Finland. For the measurement, we used a conventional VSP with three-component geophones and a novel fiber-optic Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) system. Both systems were deployed in boreholes located nearby the target sulfide deposit, and used in combination with an active seismic source that was fired from within the underground tunnels. With this setup, we successfully recorded seismic reflections from the deposit and its nearby geological contrasts. The recording systems provided data with a good signal-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution. In addition to the measurements, we generated a realistic synthetic dataset based on a detailed geological model derived from extensive drilling data and petrophysical laboratory analysis. Specific processing and imaging of the acquired and synthetic datasets yielded high-resolution reflectivity images. Joint analysis of these images and cross-validation with lithological logging data from 135 nearby boreholes led to successful interpretation of key geological contacts including the target sulfide mineralization. In conclusion, our experiment demonstrates the value of in-mine VSP measurements for detailed resource delineation in a complex geological setting. In particular, we emphasize the potential benefit of using fiber-optic DAS systems, which provide reflection data at sufficient quality with less logistical effort and a higher acquisition rate. This amounts to a lower total acquisition cost, which makes DAS a valuable tool for future mineral exploration activities.

KW - 1171 Geosciences

KW - mineral exploration

KW - reflection seismic imaging

KW - hardrock seismics

KW - vertical seismic profiling

KW - distributed acoustic sensing

KW - MASSIVE SULFIDE DEPOSITS

KW - BASE-METAL EXPLORATION

KW - CU-PGE DEPOSIT

KW - NEW-BRUNSWICK

KW - REFLECTION DATA

KW - HOST ROCKS

KW - GOLD MINE

KW - VSP

KW - OUTOKUMPU

KW - INSIGHTS

U2 - 10.3390/min8110538

DO - 10.3390/min8110538

M3 - Article

VL - 8

JO - Minerals

JF - Minerals

SN - 2075-163X

IS - 11

M1 - 538

ER -