Cities are key arenas to deal with challenges related to societal security. This project analyses the ways that fragile cities are dealing with societal security, environmental vulnerability and representative justice. The dimensions to be analysed are: 1) governance of insecurity and creation of accountable institutions; 2) authoritarian legacies and political-representation efforts; and 3) governance of environmental vulnerabilities and claims for justice. The research develops a revised theory of urban political ecology to better understand the interlinkages between security and vulnerability. Through several case studies, we identify the opportunities and constraints involved in new forms to manage urban insecurities. The methods include documentary analysis and interviews with policymakers, activists and residents. The study will increase theoretical, methdological and societal understanding of the multi-scalar complexities of security, vulnerability and justice in fragile cities.