A pilot study of antimicrobial effects and ototoxicity of a Norway spruce (Picea abies) resin-based canine otic rinse product

Elina Aimo-Koivisto, Laura Punakallio, Riikka Järvinen, Jouni Junnila, Thomas Grönthal, Merja Rantala

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelVetenskapligPeer review


Abstract Background Norway spruce (Picea abies) resin-based products are used in human medicine. A resin-based otic rinse also could be useful in supportive care of canine otitis externa (COE), yet information on its antimicrobial effect against canine pathogens or ototoxicity is lacking. Objectives To investigate the antimicrobial properties and ototoxicity of a commercial resin-based otic product. Materials and Methods Antimicrobial effect was evaluated using a standardised challenge test on Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Corynebacterium auriscanis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Malassezia pachydermatis, and Streptococcus halichoeri strains to measure reduction in growth after 24?h exposure to the product. Effect on cell morphology was investigated by exposing S.?pseudintermedius, C.?auriscanis, P.?aeruginosa and M.?pachydermatis to the product in 20% and 100% (v/v) concentrations for 6, 24 and 48?h, and evaluating cells by transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. An in vitro microbial kill?rate assay also was performed. Auditory brain stem response test, clinical evaluation and postmortem histological evaluation of ear canals were undertaken on experimental guinea pigs treated with the test product or saline controls. Results The product showed >log 5 growth reduction for all strains in the challenge test. TEM and SEM images showed clear changes in the cells' inner structures and deterioration of cells, and 100% (v/v) test product exposure induced microbial killing in 1?2?h. Ototoxicity was not detected in guinea pigs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The product may be an option in supportive care of COE because of antimicrobial effects and lack of ototoxic properties in a guinea pig model.
TidskriftVeterinary Dermatology
Sidor (från-till)325-336
Antal sidor12
StatusPublicerad - 2 jan. 2024
MoE-publikationstypA1 Tidskriftsartikel-refererad


  • 413 Veterinärvetenskap

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