Given the necessity to understand the modal shift potentials at the level of individual travel times, emissions, and physically active travel distances, there is a need for accurately computing such potentials from disaggregated data collection. Despite significant development in data collection technology, especially by utilizing smartphones, there are limited efforts in developing useful computational frameworks for this purpose. First, development of a computational framework requires longitudinal data collection of revealed travel behavior of individuals. Second, such a computational framework should enable scalable analysis of time-relevant low-carbon travel alternatives in the target region. To this end, this research presents an open-source computational framework, developed to explore the potential for shifting from private car to lower-carbon travel alternatives. In comparison to previous development, our computational framework estimates and illustrates the changes in travel time in relation to the potential reductions in emission and increases in physically active travel, as well as daily weather conditions. The potential usefulness of the framework was evaluated using long-term travel data of around a hundred travelers within the Helsinki Metropolitan Region, Finland. The case study outcomes also suggest that in several cases traveling by public transport or bike would not increase travel time compared to the observed car travel. Based on the case study results, we discuss potentially acceptable travel times for mode shift, and usefulness of the computational framework for decisions regarding transition to sustainable urban mobility systems. Finally, we discuss limitations and lessons learned for data collection and further development of similar computational frameworks.
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Bagheri, M., Mladenović, M. N., Kosonen, I., & Nurminen, J. K. (2020). Analysis of Potential Shift to Low-Carbon Urban Travel Modes: A Computational Framework Based on High-Resolution Smartphone Data. Sustainability, 12(15), . https://doi.org/10.3390/su12155901