Contrasting paleofluid systems in the continental basement: A fluid inclusion and stable isotope study of hydrothermal vein mineralization, Schwarzwald district, Germany

B. Baatartsogt, G. Schwinn, Thomas Wagner, H. Taubald, T. Beitter, G. Markl

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelVetenskapligPeer review

Sammanfattning

An integrated fluid inclusion and stable isotope study has been carried out on hydrothermal veins (Sb-bearing quartz veins, metal-bearing fluorite-barite-quartz veins) from the Schwarzwald district, Germany. A total number of 106 Variscan (quartz veins related to Variscan orogenic processes) and post-Variscan deposits were studied by microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, and stable isotope analysis. The fluid inclusions in Variscan quartz veins are of the H2O-NaCl-(KCl) type, have low salinities (0-10 wt.% eqv. NaCl) and high Th values (150-350 °C). Oxygen isotope data for quartz range from +2.8 to +12.2 ‰ and calculated δ18OH2O values of the fluid are between –12.5 and +4.4 ‰. The δD values of water extracted from fluid inclusions vary between –49 and +4 ‰. The geological framework, fluid inclusion and stable isotope characteristics of the Variscan veins suggest an origin from regional metamorphic devolatilization processes. By contrast, the fluid inclusions in post-Variscan fluorite, calcite, barite, quartz, and sphalerite belong to the H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 type, have high salinities (22–25 wt.% equivalent NaCl) and lower Th values of 90-200 °C. A low-salinity fluid (0-15 wt.% eqv. NaCl) was observed in late stage fluorite, calcite and quartz, which was trapped at similar temperatures. The δ18O values of quartz range between +11.1 and +20.9 ‰, which translates into calculated δ18OH2O between –11.0 and +4.4 ‰. This range is consistent with δ18OH2O values of fluid inclusion water extracted from fluorite (–11.6 to +1.1 ‰). The δD values of directly measured fluid inclusion water range between –29 and –1 ‰, –26 and –15 ‰, and –63 and +9 ‰ for fluorite, quartz and calcite, respectively. Calculations using the fluid inclusion and isotope data point to formation of the fluorite-barite-quartz veins under near-hydrostatic conditions. The δ18OH2O and δD data, particularly the observed wide range in δD, indicate that the mineralization formed through large-scale mixing of a basement-derived saline NaCl-CaCl2 brine with meteoric water. Our comprehensive study provides evidence for two fundamentally different fluid systems in the crystalline basement. The Variscan fluid regime is dominated by fluids generated through metamorphic devolatilization and fluid expulsion driven by compressional nappe tectonics. The onset of post-Variscan extensional tectonics resulted in replacement of the orogenic fluid regime by fluids which have distinct compositional characteristics and are related to a change in the principal fluid sources and the general fluid flow patterns. This younger system shows remarkably persistent geochemical and isotopic features over a prolonged period of more than 100 Ma.

Originalspråkengelska
TidskriftGeofluids Online
Volym7
Sidor (från-till)123-147
ISSN1468-8123
DOI
StatusPublicerad - 2007
Externt publiceradJa
MoE-publikationstypA1 Tidskriftsartikel-refererad

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title = "Contrasting paleofluid systems in the continental basement: A fluid inclusion and stable isotope study of hydrothermal vein mineralization, Schwarzwald district, Germany",
abstract = "An integrated fluid inclusion and stable isotope study has been carried out on hydrothermal veins (Sb-bearing quartz veins, metal-bearing fluorite-barite-quartz veins) from the Schwarzwald district, Germany. A total number of 106 Variscan (quartz veins related to Variscan orogenic processes) and post-Variscan deposits were studied by microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, and stable isotope analysis. The fluid inclusions in Variscan quartz veins are of the H2O-NaCl-(KCl) type, have low salinities (0-10 wt.{\%} eqv. NaCl) and high Th values (150-350 °C). Oxygen isotope data for quartz range from +2.8 to +12.2 ‰ and calculated δ18OH2O values of the fluid are between –12.5 and +4.4 ‰. The δD values of water extracted from fluid inclusions vary between –49 and +4 ‰. The geological framework, fluid inclusion and stable isotope characteristics of the Variscan veins suggest an origin from regional metamorphic devolatilization processes. By contrast, the fluid inclusions in post-Variscan fluorite, calcite, barite, quartz, and sphalerite belong to the H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 type, have high salinities (22–25 wt.{\%} equivalent NaCl) and lower Th values of 90-200 °C. A low-salinity fluid (0-15 wt.{\%} eqv. NaCl) was observed in late stage fluorite, calcite and quartz, which was trapped at similar temperatures. The δ18O values of quartz range between +11.1 and +20.9 ‰, which translates into calculated δ18OH2O between –11.0 and +4.4 ‰. This range is consistent with δ18OH2O values of fluid inclusion water extracted from fluorite (–11.6 to +1.1 ‰). The δD values of directly measured fluid inclusion water range between –29 and –1 ‰, –26 and –15 ‰, and –63 and +9 ‰ for fluorite, quartz and calcite, respectively. Calculations using the fluid inclusion and isotope data point to formation of the fluorite-barite-quartz veins under near-hydrostatic conditions. The δ18OH2O and δD data, particularly the observed wide range in δD, indicate that the mineralization formed through large-scale mixing of a basement-derived saline NaCl-CaCl2 brine with meteoric water. Our comprehensive study provides evidence for two fundamentally different fluid systems in the crystalline basement. The Variscan fluid regime is dominated by fluids generated through metamorphic devolatilization and fluid expulsion driven by compressional nappe tectonics. The onset of post-Variscan extensional tectonics resulted in replacement of the orogenic fluid regime by fluids which have distinct compositional characteristics and are related to a change in the principal fluid sources and the general fluid flow patterns. This younger system shows remarkably persistent geochemical and isotopic features over a prolonged period of more than 100 Ma.",
author = "B. Baatartsogt and G. Schwinn and Thomas Wagner and H. Taubald and T. Beitter and G. Markl",
year = "2007",
doi = "10.1111/j.1468-8123.2007.00169.x",
language = "English",
volume = "7",
pages = "123--147",
journal = "Geofluids Online",
issn = "1468-8123",
publisher = "Wiley Blackwell",

}

Contrasting paleofluid systems in the continental basement: A fluid inclusion and stable isotope study of hydrothermal vein mineralization, Schwarzwald district, Germany. / Baatartsogt, B.; Schwinn, G.; Wagner, Thomas; Taubald, H.; Beitter, T.; Markl, G.

I: Geofluids Online, Vol. 7, 2007, s. 123-147.

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelVetenskapligPeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Contrasting paleofluid systems in the continental basement: A fluid inclusion and stable isotope study of hydrothermal vein mineralization, Schwarzwald district, Germany

AU - Baatartsogt, B.

AU - Schwinn, G.

AU - Wagner, Thomas

AU - Taubald, H.

AU - Beitter, T.

AU - Markl, G.

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - An integrated fluid inclusion and stable isotope study has been carried out on hydrothermal veins (Sb-bearing quartz veins, metal-bearing fluorite-barite-quartz veins) from the Schwarzwald district, Germany. A total number of 106 Variscan (quartz veins related to Variscan orogenic processes) and post-Variscan deposits were studied by microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, and stable isotope analysis. The fluid inclusions in Variscan quartz veins are of the H2O-NaCl-(KCl) type, have low salinities (0-10 wt.% eqv. NaCl) and high Th values (150-350 °C). Oxygen isotope data for quartz range from +2.8 to +12.2 ‰ and calculated δ18OH2O values of the fluid are between –12.5 and +4.4 ‰. The δD values of water extracted from fluid inclusions vary between –49 and +4 ‰. The geological framework, fluid inclusion and stable isotope characteristics of the Variscan veins suggest an origin from regional metamorphic devolatilization processes. By contrast, the fluid inclusions in post-Variscan fluorite, calcite, barite, quartz, and sphalerite belong to the H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 type, have high salinities (22–25 wt.% equivalent NaCl) and lower Th values of 90-200 °C. A low-salinity fluid (0-15 wt.% eqv. NaCl) was observed in late stage fluorite, calcite and quartz, which was trapped at similar temperatures. The δ18O values of quartz range between +11.1 and +20.9 ‰, which translates into calculated δ18OH2O between –11.0 and +4.4 ‰. This range is consistent with δ18OH2O values of fluid inclusion water extracted from fluorite (–11.6 to +1.1 ‰). The δD values of directly measured fluid inclusion water range between –29 and –1 ‰, –26 and –15 ‰, and –63 and +9 ‰ for fluorite, quartz and calcite, respectively. Calculations using the fluid inclusion and isotope data point to formation of the fluorite-barite-quartz veins under near-hydrostatic conditions. The δ18OH2O and δD data, particularly the observed wide range in δD, indicate that the mineralization formed through large-scale mixing of a basement-derived saline NaCl-CaCl2 brine with meteoric water. Our comprehensive study provides evidence for two fundamentally different fluid systems in the crystalline basement. The Variscan fluid regime is dominated by fluids generated through metamorphic devolatilization and fluid expulsion driven by compressional nappe tectonics. The onset of post-Variscan extensional tectonics resulted in replacement of the orogenic fluid regime by fluids which have distinct compositional characteristics and are related to a change in the principal fluid sources and the general fluid flow patterns. This younger system shows remarkably persistent geochemical and isotopic features over a prolonged period of more than 100 Ma.

AB - An integrated fluid inclusion and stable isotope study has been carried out on hydrothermal veins (Sb-bearing quartz veins, metal-bearing fluorite-barite-quartz veins) from the Schwarzwald district, Germany. A total number of 106 Variscan (quartz veins related to Variscan orogenic processes) and post-Variscan deposits were studied by microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, and stable isotope analysis. The fluid inclusions in Variscan quartz veins are of the H2O-NaCl-(KCl) type, have low salinities (0-10 wt.% eqv. NaCl) and high Th values (150-350 °C). Oxygen isotope data for quartz range from +2.8 to +12.2 ‰ and calculated δ18OH2O values of the fluid are between –12.5 and +4.4 ‰. The δD values of water extracted from fluid inclusions vary between –49 and +4 ‰. The geological framework, fluid inclusion and stable isotope characteristics of the Variscan veins suggest an origin from regional metamorphic devolatilization processes. By contrast, the fluid inclusions in post-Variscan fluorite, calcite, barite, quartz, and sphalerite belong to the H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 type, have high salinities (22–25 wt.% equivalent NaCl) and lower Th values of 90-200 °C. A low-salinity fluid (0-15 wt.% eqv. NaCl) was observed in late stage fluorite, calcite and quartz, which was trapped at similar temperatures. The δ18O values of quartz range between +11.1 and +20.9 ‰, which translates into calculated δ18OH2O between –11.0 and +4.4 ‰. This range is consistent with δ18OH2O values of fluid inclusion water extracted from fluorite (–11.6 to +1.1 ‰). The δD values of directly measured fluid inclusion water range between –29 and –1 ‰, –26 and –15 ‰, and –63 and +9 ‰ for fluorite, quartz and calcite, respectively. Calculations using the fluid inclusion and isotope data point to formation of the fluorite-barite-quartz veins under near-hydrostatic conditions. The δ18OH2O and δD data, particularly the observed wide range in δD, indicate that the mineralization formed through large-scale mixing of a basement-derived saline NaCl-CaCl2 brine with meteoric water. Our comprehensive study provides evidence for two fundamentally different fluid systems in the crystalline basement. The Variscan fluid regime is dominated by fluids generated through metamorphic devolatilization and fluid expulsion driven by compressional nappe tectonics. The onset of post-Variscan extensional tectonics resulted in replacement of the orogenic fluid regime by fluids which have distinct compositional characteristics and are related to a change in the principal fluid sources and the general fluid flow patterns. This younger system shows remarkably persistent geochemical and isotopic features over a prolonged period of more than 100 Ma.

U2 - 10.1111/j.1468-8123.2007.00169.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1468-8123.2007.00169.x

M3 - Article

VL - 7

SP - 123

EP - 147

JO - Geofluids Online

JF - Geofluids Online

SN - 1468-8123

ER -