The approval of the first oncolytic virus (OV) for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and the recent discovery that the use of oncolytic viruses may enhance cancer immunotherapies targeted against various immune checkpoint proteins have attracted great interest in the field of cancer virotherapy. OVs are designed to target and kill cancer cells leaving normal cell unharmed. OV infection and concomitant cancer cell killing stimulate anti-tumour immunity and modulates tumour microenvironment towards less immunosuppressive phenotype. The intrinsic capacity of OVs to turn immunologically cold tumours into immunologically hot tumours, and to increase immune cell and cytokine infiltration, can be further enhanced by arming OVs with transgenes that increase their immunostimulatory activities and direct immune responses specifically towards cancer cells. These OVs, specifically engineered to be used as cancer immunotherapeutics, can be synergized with other immune modulators or cytotoxic agents to achieve the most potent immunotherapy for cancer.
- 3122 Cancersjukdomar
- 318 Medicinsk bioteknologi