Fluid mixing from below in unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits

Paul D. Bons, Tobias Fusswinkel, Enrique Gomez-Rivas, Gregor Markl, Thomas Wagner, Benjamin Walter

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelVetenskapligPeer review

Sammanfattning

Unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits typically form by mixing of hot, deep, rock-buffered basement brines and cooler fluids derived from the surface or overlying sediments. Current models invoking simultaneous downward and upward flow of the mixing fluids are inconsistent with fluid overpressure indicated by fracturing and brecciation, fast fluid flow suggested by thermal disequilibrium, and small-scale fluid composition variations, indicated by fluid inclusion analyses. We propose a new model where fluids first descend, then evolve while residing in pores and later ascend. We use the hydrothermal ore deposits of the German Schwarzwald district as an example. Oldest fluids reach greatest depths, where long residence times and elevated temperatures allow them to equilibrate with their host rock, reach high salinity and scavenge metals. Youngest fluids can only penetrate to shallower depths and can (partially) retain their original signatures. When fluids are released from different levels of the crustal column, these fluids mix during rapid ascent in hydrofractures to form hydrothermal ore deposits. Mixing from below during ascent provides a viable hydromechanical mechanism to explain the common phenomenon of mixed shallow and deep fluids in hydrothermal ore deposits.
Originalspråkengelska
TidskriftGeology
Volym42
Utgåva12
Sidor (från-till)1035-1038
Antal sidor4
ISSN0091-7613
DOI
StatusPublicerad - 2014
MoE-publikationstypA1 Tidskriftsartikel-refererad

Vetenskapsgrenar

  • 1171 Geovetenskaper

Citera det här

Bons, P. D., Fusswinkel, T., Gomez-Rivas, E., Markl, G., Wagner, T., & Walter, B. (2014). Fluid mixing from below in unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits. Geology, 42(12), 1035-1038. https://doi.org/10.1130/G35708.1
Bons, Paul D. ; Fusswinkel, Tobias ; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique ; Markl, Gregor ; Wagner, Thomas ; Walter, Benjamin. / Fluid mixing from below in unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits. I: Geology. 2014 ; Vol. 42, Nr. 12. s. 1035-1038.
@article{cc224dd7b7e64516a7f20b4e139c1cab,
title = "Fluid mixing from below in unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits",
abstract = "Unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits typically form by mixing of hot, deep, rock-buffered basement brines and cooler fluids derived from the surface or overlying sediments. Current models invoking simultaneous downward and upward flow of the mixing fluids are inconsistent with fluid overpressure indicated by fracturing and brecciation, fast fluid flow suggested by thermal disequilibrium, and small-scale fluid composition variations, indicated by fluid inclusion analyses. We propose a new model where fluids first descend, then evolve while residing in pores and later ascend. We use the hydrothermal ore deposits of the German Schwarzwald district as an example. Oldest fluids reach greatest depths, where long residence times and elevated temperatures allow them to equilibrate with their host rock, reach high salinity and scavenge metals. Youngest fluids can only penetrate to shallower depths and can (partially) retain their original signatures. When fluids are released from different levels of the crustal column, these fluids mix during rapid ascent in hydrofractures to form hydrothermal ore deposits. Mixing from below during ascent provides a viable hydromechanical mechanism to explain the common phenomenon of mixed shallow and deep fluids in hydrothermal ore deposits.",
keywords = "1171 Geosciences",
author = "Bons, {Paul D.} and Tobias Fusswinkel and Enrique Gomez-Rivas and Gregor Markl and Thomas Wagner and Benjamin Walter",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1130/G35708.1",
language = "English",
volume = "42",
pages = "1035--1038",
journal = "Geology",
issn = "0091-7613",
publisher = "Geological Society of America",
number = "12",

}

Bons, PD, Fusswinkel, T, Gomez-Rivas, E, Markl, G, Wagner, T & Walter, B 2014, 'Fluid mixing from below in unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits', Geology, vol. 42, nr. 12, s. 1035-1038. https://doi.org/10.1130/G35708.1

Fluid mixing from below in unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits. / Bons, Paul D.; Fusswinkel, Tobias; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Markl, Gregor; Wagner, Thomas; Walter, Benjamin.

I: Geology, Vol. 42, Nr. 12, 2014, s. 1035-1038.

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelVetenskapligPeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fluid mixing from below in unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits

AU - Bons, Paul D.

AU - Fusswinkel, Tobias

AU - Gomez-Rivas, Enrique

AU - Markl, Gregor

AU - Wagner, Thomas

AU - Walter, Benjamin

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits typically form by mixing of hot, deep, rock-buffered basement brines and cooler fluids derived from the surface or overlying sediments. Current models invoking simultaneous downward and upward flow of the mixing fluids are inconsistent with fluid overpressure indicated by fracturing and brecciation, fast fluid flow suggested by thermal disequilibrium, and small-scale fluid composition variations, indicated by fluid inclusion analyses. We propose a new model where fluids first descend, then evolve while residing in pores and later ascend. We use the hydrothermal ore deposits of the German Schwarzwald district as an example. Oldest fluids reach greatest depths, where long residence times and elevated temperatures allow them to equilibrate with their host rock, reach high salinity and scavenge metals. Youngest fluids can only penetrate to shallower depths and can (partially) retain their original signatures. When fluids are released from different levels of the crustal column, these fluids mix during rapid ascent in hydrofractures to form hydrothermal ore deposits. Mixing from below during ascent provides a viable hydromechanical mechanism to explain the common phenomenon of mixed shallow and deep fluids in hydrothermal ore deposits.

AB - Unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits typically form by mixing of hot, deep, rock-buffered basement brines and cooler fluids derived from the surface or overlying sediments. Current models invoking simultaneous downward and upward flow of the mixing fluids are inconsistent with fluid overpressure indicated by fracturing and brecciation, fast fluid flow suggested by thermal disequilibrium, and small-scale fluid composition variations, indicated by fluid inclusion analyses. We propose a new model where fluids first descend, then evolve while residing in pores and later ascend. We use the hydrothermal ore deposits of the German Schwarzwald district as an example. Oldest fluids reach greatest depths, where long residence times and elevated temperatures allow them to equilibrate with their host rock, reach high salinity and scavenge metals. Youngest fluids can only penetrate to shallower depths and can (partially) retain their original signatures. When fluids are released from different levels of the crustal column, these fluids mix during rapid ascent in hydrofractures to form hydrothermal ore deposits. Mixing from below during ascent provides a viable hydromechanical mechanism to explain the common phenomenon of mixed shallow and deep fluids in hydrothermal ore deposits.

KW - 1171 Geosciences

U2 - 10.1130/G35708.1

DO - 10.1130/G35708.1

M3 - Article

VL - 42

SP - 1035

EP - 1038

JO - Geology

JF - Geology

SN - 0091-7613

IS - 12

ER -

Bons PD, Fusswinkel T, Gomez-Rivas E, Markl G, Wagner T, Walter B. Fluid mixing from below in unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits. Geology. 2014;42(12):1035-1038. https://doi.org/10.1130/G35708.1