Higher Education Systems and Labour Market Outcomes in Japan and Finland, 1950-2010

Yasushi Tanaka, Toshiaki Tamaki, Anu Ojala, Olli Turunen

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In recent decades, both Japan and Finland have drawn international attention to their education systems. Since the 1960s, Japan has been ranked among the top performers in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), while Finland has received international acclaim for her outstanding performance in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) by the OECD, and most recently both countries were ranked high in the OECD Skills Outlook 2013 Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). Both Japan and Finland were at the top of OECD countries in adult literacy and numeracy profi ciency scores. There is no doubt that these outcomes are the results of the educational policies of the two countries. In particular, in both countries, belief in high educational standards as well as in the economic and intellectual benefi ts of education is fi rmly entrenched. This produces ready recruits for higher education, but the ways to organize higher education and how the students are catered for are quite different. According to UNESCO’s Global Education Indicators (GEI) 2009, the percentages of enrolment in the private tertiary education sector in 2007 for Japan and Finland were 80 per cent and 11 per cent respectively, so while in Japan educational costs are mostly covered privately, Finnish higher education students receive considerable amounts of public fi nancial support and study in a free, publicly funded system. Related to this issue is that, according to the GEI 2009, the enrolment ratios for tertiary education for Japan and Finland in 2007 were 58 per cent and 94 per cent respectively. They are almost at the bottom and the top of the enrolment rate ranking among the industrialized countries of East Asia, North America, and Western Europe. To explain these differences this chapter discusses the history of education in both countries, educational systems today, and trends in higher education. Furthermore, the chapter considers the costs and benefi ts of higher education in Japan and Finland in order to create a contextual setting for a later comparison of the post-war-era economic returns on higher education.
Titel på gästpublikationComparing Post War Japanese and Finnish Economies and Societies : Longitudinal perspectives
RedaktörerYasushi Tanaka, Toshiaki Tamaki, Jari Ojala, Jari Eloranta
Antal sidor29
ISBN (tryckt)978-0-415-65620-7
ISBN (elektroniskt)978-1-315-74620-3
StatusPublicerad - 2015
Externt publiceradJa
MoE-publikationstypA3 Del av bok eller annan forskningsbok


NamnRoutledge Studies in the Modern World Economy


  • 5202 Ekonomisk- och socialhistoria

Citera det här

Tanaka, Y., Tamaki, T., Ojala, A., & Turunen, O. (2015). Higher Education Systems and Labour Market Outcomes in Japan and Finland, 1950-2010. I Y. Tanaka, T. Tamaki, J. Ojala, & J. Eloranta (Red.), Comparing Post War Japanese and Finnish Economies and Societies: Longitudinal perspectives (s. 43-71). (Routledge Studies in the Modern World Economy; Vol. 135). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315746203