Background: Heparin and heparin-related sulphated carbohydrates inhibit ligand binding of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Here, we have studied the ability of heparin to inhibit homophilic interactions of RAGE in living cells and studied how heparin related structures interfere with RAGE–ligand interactions. Methods: Homophilic interactions of RAGE were studied with bead aggregation and living cell protein-fragment complementation assays. Ligand binding was analyzed with microwell binding and chromatographic assays. Cell surface advanced glycation end product binding to RAGE was studied using PC3 cell adhesion assay. Results: Homophilic binding of RAGE was mediated by V1- and modulated by C2-domain in bead aggregation assay. Dimerisation of RAGE on the living cell surface was inhibited by heparin. Sulphated K5 carbohydrate fragments inhibited RAGE binding to amyloid β-peptide and HMGB1. The inhibition was dependent on the level of sulfation and the length of the carbohydrate backbone. α-d-Glucopyranosiduronic acid (glycyrrhizin) inhibited RAGE binding to advanced glycation end products in PC3 cell adhesion and protein binding assays. Further, glycyrrhizin inhibited HMGB1 and HMGB1 A-box binding to heparin. Conclusions: Our results show that K5 polysaccharides and glycyrrhizin are promising candidates for RAGE targeting drug development.
- 3112 Neurovetenskaper