Lifestyle-related factors in late midlife as predictors of frailty from late midlife into old age: a longitudinal birth cohort study

Markus J. Haapanen, Tuija M. Mikkola, Juulia Jylhävä, Niko S. Wasenius, Eero Kajantie, Johan G. Eriksson, Mikaela B. von Bonsdorff

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelVetenskapligPeer review


Background: Few studies have examined longitudinal changes in lifestyle-related factors and frailty. Methods: We examined the association between individual lifestyle factors (exercise, diet, sleep, alcohol, smoking and body composition), their sum at baseline, their change over the 17-year follow-up and the rate of change in frailty index values using linear mixed models in a cohort of 2,000 participants aged 57–69 years at baseline. Results: A higher number of healthy lifestyle-related factors at baseline was associated with lower levels of frailty but not with its rate of change from late midlife into old age. Participants who stopped exercising regularly (adjusted β × Time = 0.19, 95%CI = 0.10, 0.27) and who began experiencing sleeping difficulties (adjusted β × Time = 0.20, 95%CI = 0.10, 0.31) experienced more rapid increases in frailty from late midlife into old age. Conversely, those whose sleep improved (adjusted β × Time = -0.10, 95%CI = -0.23, -0.01) showed a slower increase in frailty from late midlife onwards. Participants letting go of lifestyle-related factors (decline by 3+ factors vs. no change) became more frail faster from late midlife into old age (adjusted β × Time = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.30). Conclusions: Lifestyle-related differences in frailty were already evident in late midlife and persisted into old age. Adopting one new healthy lifestyle-related factor had a small impact on a slightly less steeply increasing level of frailty. Maintaining regular exercise and sleeping habits may help prevent more rapid increases in frailty.

TidskriftAge and Ageing
Antal sidor10
StatusPublicerad - 1 apr. 2024
MoE-publikationstypA1 Tidskriftsartikel-refererad

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© The Author(s) 2024.


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