Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis of the microbial community in Swiss-type Maasdam cheese during ripening

Ilhan Cem Duru, Pia Kati Sofia Laine, Margarita Andreevskaya, Lars Göran Paulin, Soila Kananen, Soile Tynkkynen, Petri Olli Viljami Auvinen, Olli-Pekka Aukusti Smolander

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelVetenskapligPeer review


In Swiss-type cheeses, characteristic nut-like and sweet flavor develops during the cheese ripening due to the metabolic activities of cheese microbiota. Temperature changes during warm and cold room ripening, and duration of ripening can significantly change the gene expression of the cheese microbiota, which can affect the flavor formation. In this study, a metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis of Swiss-type Maasdam cheese was performed on samples obtained during ripening in the warm and cold rooms. We reconstructed four different bacterial genomes (Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii strain JS) from the Maasdam cheese to near completeness. Based on the DNA and RNA mean coverage, Lc. lactis strongly dominated (similar to 80-90%) within the cheese microbial community. Genome annotation showed the potential for the presence of several flavor forming pathways in these species, such as production of methanethiol, free fatty acids, acetoin, diacetyl, acetate, ethanol, and propionate. Using the metatranscriptomic data, we showed that, with the exception of Lc. lactis, the central metabolism of the microbiota was downregulated during cold room ripening suggesting that fewer flavor compounds such as acetoin and propionate were produced. In contrast, Lc. lactis genes related to the central metabolism, including the vitamin biosynthesis and homolactic fermentation, were upregulated during cold room ripening.

TidskriftInternational Journal of Food Microbiology
Sidor (från-till)10-22
Antal sidor13
StatusPublicerad - 20 sep. 2018
MoE-publikationstypA1 Tidskriftsartikel-refererad


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