Minerals of the system Bi-Te-Se-S related to the tetradymite archetype: Review of classification and compositional variation

N.J. Cook, C. Ciobanu, Thomas Wagner, C.J. Stanley

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelVetenskapligPeer review

Sammanfattning

Our compilation of ~900 published results of analyses for minerals of the tetradymite series (tellurobismuthite, tetradymite, guanajuatite, paraguanajuatite, kawazulite, skippenite, tsumoite, hedleyite, pilsenite, laitakarite, ikunolite, joséite-A, joséite-B) allows compositional fi elds among naturally occurring Bi–Te–Se–S compounds to be established. New compositional data for ingodite, laitakarite, pilsenite, kawazulite and tellurobismuthite extend previously known compositional limits. Recognized minerals can, for the most part, be satisfactorily and conveniently classifi ed according to the ratio Bi(+ Pb)/(Te + Se + S), into the subsystems (isoseries) Bi2Te3–Bi2Se3–Bi2S3, Bi4Te3–Bi4Se3–Bi4S3 and BiTe–BiSe–BiS. Most minerals show limited compositional variation, but this is generally more extensive in the Se-bearing phases (e.g., laitakarite) and in certain members of the system Bi–Te, such as hedleyite and tsumoite. Substitution of minor Pb for Bi is widespread throughout the group, especially in the Bi4Te3–Bi4Se3–Bi4S3 subgroup. Several possible additional minerals or compositional variants of existing minerals would appear to exist in nature, including Bi4Te2Se, Bi4Te(Se,S)2, Bi3Te2Se and Bi3(Te,S,Se)4. Within the above groups, Bi(+ Pb)/(Te + Se + S) stoichiometry is remarkably constant, in accordance with known and derived structures in which all phases (except those in which Pb is essential) can be envisaged in terms of various combinations of nonvalent five-atom Bi2X3 and two-atom Bi2 layers. Deviation from Bi(+ Pb)/(Te + Se + S) stoichiometry within the isoseries may be linked to stacking disorder. Noting the appearance of many other phases and stoichiometries in experimental work in the system Bi–Te–Se–S and its subsystems, as well as the homologous character of this series, we predict that a significant number of additional mineral phases exist in nature and will be discovered in the future. Many of these, however, cannot be identified by chemical microanalysis alone.

Originalspråkengelska
TidskriftCanadian Mineralogist
Volym45
Sidor (från-till)665-708
ISSN0008-4476
DOI
StatusPublicerad - 2007
Externt publiceradJa
MoE-publikationstypA1 Tidskriftsartikel-refererad

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@article{e35ed9616e694b9a9d23ee1093d3ec41,
title = "Minerals of the system Bi-Te-Se-S related to the tetradymite archetype: Review of classification and compositional variation",
abstract = "Our compilation of ~900 published results of analyses for minerals of the tetradymite series (tellurobismuthite, tetradymite, guanajuatite, paraguanajuatite, kawazulite, skippenite, tsumoite, hedleyite, pilsenite, laitakarite, ikunolite, jos{\'e}ite-A, jos{\'e}ite-B) allows compositional fi elds among naturally occurring Bi–Te–Se–S compounds to be established. New compositional data for ingodite, laitakarite, pilsenite, kawazulite and tellurobismuthite extend previously known compositional limits. Recognized minerals can, for the most part, be satisfactorily and conveniently classifi ed according to the ratio Bi(+ Pb)/(Te + Se + S), into the subsystems (isoseries) Bi2Te3–Bi2Se3–Bi2S3, Bi4Te3–Bi4Se3–Bi4S3 and BiTe–BiSe–BiS. Most minerals show limited compositional variation, but this is generally more extensive in the Se-bearing phases (e.g., laitakarite) and in certain members of the system Bi–Te, such as hedleyite and tsumoite. Substitution of minor Pb for Bi is widespread throughout the group, especially in the Bi4Te3–Bi4Se3–Bi4S3 subgroup. Several possible additional minerals or compositional variants of existing minerals would appear to exist in nature, including Bi4Te2Se, Bi4Te(Se,S)2, Bi3Te2Se and Bi3(Te,S,Se)4. Within the above groups, Bi(+ Pb)/(Te + Se + S) stoichiometry is remarkably constant, in accordance with known and derived structures in which all phases (except those in which Pb is essential) can be envisaged in terms of various combinations of nonvalent five-atom Bi2X3 and two-atom Bi2 layers. Deviation from Bi(+ Pb)/(Te + Se + S) stoichiometry within the isoseries may be linked to stacking disorder. Noting the appearance of many other phases and stoichiometries in experimental work in the system Bi–Te–Se–S and its subsystems, as well as the homologous character of this series, we predict that a significant number of additional mineral phases exist in nature and will be discovered in the future. Many of these, however, cannot be identified by chemical microanalysis alone.",
author = "N.J. Cook and C. Ciobanu and Thomas Wagner and C.J. Stanley",
year = "2007",
doi = "10.2113/gscanmin.45.4.665",
language = "English",
volume = "45",
pages = "665--708",
journal = "Canadian Mineralogist",
issn = "0008-4476",
publisher = "Mineralogical Association of Canada",

}

Minerals of the system Bi-Te-Se-S related to the tetradymite archetype: Review of classification and compositional variation. / Cook, N.J.; Ciobanu, C.; Wagner, Thomas; Stanley, C.J.

I: Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 45, 2007, s. 665-708.

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelVetenskapligPeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Minerals of the system Bi-Te-Se-S related to the tetradymite archetype: Review of classification and compositional variation

AU - Cook, N.J.

AU - Ciobanu, C.

AU - Wagner, Thomas

AU - Stanley, C.J.

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - Our compilation of ~900 published results of analyses for minerals of the tetradymite series (tellurobismuthite, tetradymite, guanajuatite, paraguanajuatite, kawazulite, skippenite, tsumoite, hedleyite, pilsenite, laitakarite, ikunolite, joséite-A, joséite-B) allows compositional fi elds among naturally occurring Bi–Te–Se–S compounds to be established. New compositional data for ingodite, laitakarite, pilsenite, kawazulite and tellurobismuthite extend previously known compositional limits. Recognized minerals can, for the most part, be satisfactorily and conveniently classifi ed according to the ratio Bi(+ Pb)/(Te + Se + S), into the subsystems (isoseries) Bi2Te3–Bi2Se3–Bi2S3, Bi4Te3–Bi4Se3–Bi4S3 and BiTe–BiSe–BiS. Most minerals show limited compositional variation, but this is generally more extensive in the Se-bearing phases (e.g., laitakarite) and in certain members of the system Bi–Te, such as hedleyite and tsumoite. Substitution of minor Pb for Bi is widespread throughout the group, especially in the Bi4Te3–Bi4Se3–Bi4S3 subgroup. Several possible additional minerals or compositional variants of existing minerals would appear to exist in nature, including Bi4Te2Se, Bi4Te(Se,S)2, Bi3Te2Se and Bi3(Te,S,Se)4. Within the above groups, Bi(+ Pb)/(Te + Se + S) stoichiometry is remarkably constant, in accordance with known and derived structures in which all phases (except those in which Pb is essential) can be envisaged in terms of various combinations of nonvalent five-atom Bi2X3 and two-atom Bi2 layers. Deviation from Bi(+ Pb)/(Te + Se + S) stoichiometry within the isoseries may be linked to stacking disorder. Noting the appearance of many other phases and stoichiometries in experimental work in the system Bi–Te–Se–S and its subsystems, as well as the homologous character of this series, we predict that a significant number of additional mineral phases exist in nature and will be discovered in the future. Many of these, however, cannot be identified by chemical microanalysis alone.

AB - Our compilation of ~900 published results of analyses for minerals of the tetradymite series (tellurobismuthite, tetradymite, guanajuatite, paraguanajuatite, kawazulite, skippenite, tsumoite, hedleyite, pilsenite, laitakarite, ikunolite, joséite-A, joséite-B) allows compositional fi elds among naturally occurring Bi–Te–Se–S compounds to be established. New compositional data for ingodite, laitakarite, pilsenite, kawazulite and tellurobismuthite extend previously known compositional limits. Recognized minerals can, for the most part, be satisfactorily and conveniently classifi ed according to the ratio Bi(+ Pb)/(Te + Se + S), into the subsystems (isoseries) Bi2Te3–Bi2Se3–Bi2S3, Bi4Te3–Bi4Se3–Bi4S3 and BiTe–BiSe–BiS. Most minerals show limited compositional variation, but this is generally more extensive in the Se-bearing phases (e.g., laitakarite) and in certain members of the system Bi–Te, such as hedleyite and tsumoite. Substitution of minor Pb for Bi is widespread throughout the group, especially in the Bi4Te3–Bi4Se3–Bi4S3 subgroup. Several possible additional minerals or compositional variants of existing minerals would appear to exist in nature, including Bi4Te2Se, Bi4Te(Se,S)2, Bi3Te2Se and Bi3(Te,S,Se)4. Within the above groups, Bi(+ Pb)/(Te + Se + S) stoichiometry is remarkably constant, in accordance with known and derived structures in which all phases (except those in which Pb is essential) can be envisaged in terms of various combinations of nonvalent five-atom Bi2X3 and two-atom Bi2 layers. Deviation from Bi(+ Pb)/(Te + Se + S) stoichiometry within the isoseries may be linked to stacking disorder. Noting the appearance of many other phases and stoichiometries in experimental work in the system Bi–Te–Se–S and its subsystems, as well as the homologous character of this series, we predict that a significant number of additional mineral phases exist in nature and will be discovered in the future. Many of these, however, cannot be identified by chemical microanalysis alone.

U2 - 10.2113/gscanmin.45.4.665

DO - 10.2113/gscanmin.45.4.665

M3 - Article

VL - 45

SP - 665

EP - 708

JO - Canadian Mineralogist

JF - Canadian Mineralogist

SN - 0008-4476

ER -