Cells are the basic functional units in forest ecosystems. Plants have strong cell wall , formed by cellulose and lignin. Cell membrane isolates the cell from its surroundings, starch acts as storage and enzymes enable synthesis of new compounds. Membrane pumps allow penetration of cell membrane and pigments capture of light energy. We call enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments as functional substances. The biochemical regulation system changes the concentrations and activities of the functional substances: In summer, metabolism is very active, but in winter, vegetation is dormant and tolerates low temperatures. The action of the biochemical regulation system generates emergent regularities in the functional substances, called the state of functional substances. The effect of environmental factors on metabolism is built in the complex chain of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments, acting in each metabolic task. The process-specific state of functional substances and the environmental factors determine the rate of each metabolic process. Microbes have dominating role in the soil. Together with soil fauna, microbes break down macromolecules with extracellular enzymes to small molecules that can penetrate the microbial cell membrane through membrane pumps. The microbial metabolism utilises the small carbon-rich molecules for the energy needs, growth and synthesis of the extracellular enzymes.
|Titel på värdpublikation||Physical and Physiologial Forest Ecology|
|Redaktörer||Pertti Hari, Kari Heliövaara, Liisa Kulmala|
|Status||Publicerad - feb. 2013|
|MoE-publikationstyp||A3 Del av bok eller annan forskningsbok|
- 114 Fysik
- 119 Övrig naturvetenskap