Sammanfattning

Cells are the basic functional units in forest ecosystems. Plants have strong cell wall , formed by cellulose and lignin. Cell membrane isolates the cell from its surroundings, starch acts as storage and enzymes enable synthesis of new compounds. Membrane pumps allow penetration of cell membrane and pigments capture of light energy. We call enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments as functional substances. The biochemical regulation system changes the concentrations and activities of the functional substances: In summer, metabolism is very active, but in winter, vegetation is dormant and tolerates low temperatures. The action of the biochemical regulation system generates emergent regularities in the functional substances, called the state of functional substances. The effect of environmental factors on metabolism is built in the complex chain of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments, acting in each metabolic task. The process-specific state of functional substances and the environmental factors determine the rate of each metabolic process. Microbes have dominating role in the soil. Together with soil fauna, microbes break down macromolecules with extracellular enzymes to small molecules that can penetrate the microbial cell membrane through membrane pumps. The microbial metabolism utilises the small carbon-rich molecules for the energy needs, growth and synthesis of the extracellular enzymes.
Originalspråkengelska
Titel på gästpublikationPhysical and Physiologial Forest Ecology
RedaktörerPertti Hari, Kari Heliövaara, Liisa Kulmala
Antal sidor182
UtgivningsortDordrecht
FörlagSpringer
Utgivningsdatumfeb 2013
Sidor43-223
ISBN (tryckt)978-94-007-5602-1
ISBN (elektroniskt)978-94-007-5603-8
DOI
StatusPublicerad - feb 2013
MoE-publikationstypA3 Del av bok eller annan forskningsbok

Vetenskapsgrenar

  • 114 Fysik
  • 119 Övrig naturvetenskap

Citera det här

Bäck, J., Nikinmaa, E., Kulmala, M., Simojoki, A., Hari, P., Häkkinen, R., ... Kähkönen, M. (2013). Processes in Living Structures. I P. Hari, K. Heliövaara, & L. Kulmala (Red.), Physical and Physiologial Forest Ecology (s. 43-223). Dordrecht: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5603-8_4
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title = "Processes in Living Structures",
abstract = "Cells are the basic functional units in forest ecosystems. Plants have strong cell wall , formed by cellulose and lignin. Cell membrane isolates the cell from its surroundings, starch acts as storage and enzymes enable synthesis of new compounds. Membrane pumps allow penetration of cell membrane and pigments capture of light energy. We call enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments as functional substances. The biochemical regulation system changes the concentrations and activities of the functional substances: In summer, metabolism is very active, but in winter, vegetation is dormant and tolerates low temperatures. The action of the biochemical regulation system generates emergent regularities in the functional substances, called the state of functional substances. The effect of environmental factors on metabolism is built in the complex chain of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments, acting in each metabolic task. The process-specific state of functional substances and the environmental factors determine the rate of each metabolic process. Microbes have dominating role in the soil. Together with soil fauna, microbes break down macromolecules with extracellular enzymes to small molecules that can penetrate the microbial cell membrane through membrane pumps. The microbial metabolism utilises the small carbon-rich molecules for the energy needs, growth and synthesis of the extracellular enzymes.",
keywords = "114 Physical sciences, FOREST ECOSYSTEMS, FOREST FLOOR, FOREST CANOPY, SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION, SOIL CO2 EFFLUX, SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY, ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL-PARTICLES, ATMOSPHERE, ecology, silviculture, productivity, Anthocephalus cadamba Miq., guidelines, 119 Other natural sciences",
author = "Jaana B{\"a}ck and Eero Nikinmaa and Markku Kulmala and Asko Simojoki and Pertti Hari and Risto H{\"a}kkinen and Tapio Linkosalo and Heikki H{\"a}nninen and Eija Juurola and Pasi Kolari and {Kabiri Koupaei}, Kourosh and Albert Porcar-Castell and Jussi Heinonsalo and Sari Timonen and Kari Heli{\"o}vaara and Maarit Raivonen and Johanna Joensuu and Mari Pihlatie and Jukka Pumpanen and Jukka Kurola and Salkinoja-Salonen, {Mirja Sinikka} and Mika K{\"a}hk{\"o}nen",
year = "2013",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1007/978-94-007-5603-8_4",
language = "English",
isbn = "978-94-007-5602-1",
pages = "43--223",
editor = "Hari, {Pertti } and Kari Heli{\"o}vaara and Liisa Kulmala",
booktitle = "Physical and Physiologial Forest Ecology",
publisher = "Springer",
address = "United States",

}

Processes in Living Structures. / Bäck, Jaana; Nikinmaa, Eero; Kulmala, Markku; Simojoki, Asko; Hari, Pertti; Häkkinen, Risto; Linkosalo, Tapio; Hänninen, Heikki; Juurola, Eija; Kolari, Pasi; Kabiri Koupaei, Kourosh; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Timonen, Sari; Heliövaara, Kari; Raivonen, Maarit; Joensuu, Johanna; Pihlatie, Mari; Pumpanen, Jukka; Kurola, Jukka; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja Sinikka; Kähkönen, Mika.

Physical and Physiologial Forest Ecology. red. / Pertti Hari; Kari Heliövaara; Liisa Kulmala. Dordrecht : Springer, 2013. s. 43-223.

Forskningsoutput: Kapitel i bok/rapport/konferenshandlingKapitelVetenskapligPeer review

TY - CHAP

T1 - Processes in Living Structures

AU - Bäck, Jaana

AU - Nikinmaa, Eero

AU - Kulmala, Markku

AU - Simojoki, Asko

AU - Hari, Pertti

AU - Häkkinen, Risto

AU - Linkosalo, Tapio

AU - Hänninen, Heikki

AU - Juurola, Eija

AU - Kolari, Pasi

AU - Kabiri Koupaei, Kourosh

AU - Porcar-Castell, Albert

AU - Heinonsalo, Jussi

AU - Timonen, Sari

AU - Heliövaara, Kari

AU - Raivonen, Maarit

AU - Joensuu, Johanna

AU - Pihlatie, Mari

AU - Pumpanen, Jukka

AU - Kurola, Jukka

AU - Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja Sinikka

AU - Kähkönen, Mika

PY - 2013/2

Y1 - 2013/2

N2 - Cells are the basic functional units in forest ecosystems. Plants have strong cell wall , formed by cellulose and lignin. Cell membrane isolates the cell from its surroundings, starch acts as storage and enzymes enable synthesis of new compounds. Membrane pumps allow penetration of cell membrane and pigments capture of light energy. We call enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments as functional substances. The biochemical regulation system changes the concentrations and activities of the functional substances: In summer, metabolism is very active, but in winter, vegetation is dormant and tolerates low temperatures. The action of the biochemical regulation system generates emergent regularities in the functional substances, called the state of functional substances. The effect of environmental factors on metabolism is built in the complex chain of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments, acting in each metabolic task. The process-specific state of functional substances and the environmental factors determine the rate of each metabolic process. Microbes have dominating role in the soil. Together with soil fauna, microbes break down macromolecules with extracellular enzymes to small molecules that can penetrate the microbial cell membrane through membrane pumps. The microbial metabolism utilises the small carbon-rich molecules for the energy needs, growth and synthesis of the extracellular enzymes.

AB - Cells are the basic functional units in forest ecosystems. Plants have strong cell wall , formed by cellulose and lignin. Cell membrane isolates the cell from its surroundings, starch acts as storage and enzymes enable synthesis of new compounds. Membrane pumps allow penetration of cell membrane and pigments capture of light energy. We call enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments as functional substances. The biochemical regulation system changes the concentrations and activities of the functional substances: In summer, metabolism is very active, but in winter, vegetation is dormant and tolerates low temperatures. The action of the biochemical regulation system generates emergent regularities in the functional substances, called the state of functional substances. The effect of environmental factors on metabolism is built in the complex chain of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments, acting in each metabolic task. The process-specific state of functional substances and the environmental factors determine the rate of each metabolic process. Microbes have dominating role in the soil. Together with soil fauna, microbes break down macromolecules with extracellular enzymes to small molecules that can penetrate the microbial cell membrane through membrane pumps. The microbial metabolism utilises the small carbon-rich molecules for the energy needs, growth and synthesis of the extracellular enzymes.

KW - 114 Physical sciences

KW - FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

KW - FOREST FLOOR

KW - FOREST CANOPY

KW - SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

KW - SOIL CO2 EFFLUX

KW - SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY

KW - ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL-PARTICLES

KW - ATMOSPHERE

KW - ecology, silviculture, productivity, Anthocephalus cadamba Miq., guidelines

KW - 119 Other natural sciences

U2 - 10.1007/978-94-007-5603-8_4

DO - 10.1007/978-94-007-5603-8_4

M3 - Chapter

SN - 978-94-007-5602-1

SP - 43

EP - 223

BT - Physical and Physiologial Forest Ecology

A2 - Hari, Pertti

A2 - Heliövaara, Kari

A2 - Kulmala, Liisa

PB - Springer

CY - Dordrecht

ER -

Bäck J, Nikinmaa E, Kulmala M, Simojoki A, Hari P, Häkkinen R et al. Processes in Living Structures. I Hari P, Heliövaara K, Kulmala L, redaktörer, Physical and Physiologial Forest Ecology. Dordrecht: Springer. 2013. s. 43-223 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5603-8_4