Rapid sex-specific evolution of age at maturity is shaped by genetic architecture in Atlantic salmon

Yann Czorlich, Tutku Aykanat, Jaakko Erkinaro, Panu Orell, Craig Robert Primmer

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelVetenskapligPeer review

Sammanfattning

Understanding the mechanisms by which populations adapt to their environments is a fundamental aim in biology. However, it remains challenging to identify the genetic basis of traits, provide evidence of genetic changes and quantify phenotypic responses. Age at maturity in Atlantic salmon represents an ideal trait to study contemporary adaptive evolution as it has been associated with a single locus in the vgll3 region and has also strongly changed in recent decades. Here, we provide an empirical example of contemporary adaptive evolution of a large-effect locus driving contrasting sex-specific evolutionary responses at the phenotypic level. We identified an 18% decrease in the vgll3 allele associated with late maturity in a large and diverse salmon population over 36 years, induced by sex-specific selection during sea migration. Those genetic changes resulted in a significant evolutionary response only in males, due to sex-specific dominance patterns and vgll3 allelic effects. The vgll3 allelic and dominance effects differed greatly in a second population and were likely to generate different selection and evolutionary patterns. Our study highlights the importance of knowledge of genetic architecture to better understand fitness trait evolution and phenotypic diversity. It also emphasizes the potential role of adaptive evolution in the trend towards earlier maturation observed in numerous Atlantic salmon populations worldwide.
Originalspråkengelska
TidskriftNature Ecology & Evolution
Volym2
Utgåva11
Sidor (från-till)1800-1807
Antal sidor8
ISSN2397-334X
DOI
StatusPublicerad - nov 2018
MoE-publikationstypA1 Tidskriftsartikel-refererad

Vetenskapsgrenar

  • 1181 Ekologi, evolutionsbiologi
  • 1184 Genetik, utvecklingsbiologi, fysiologi

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title = "Rapid sex-specific evolution of age at maturity is shaped by genetic architecture in Atlantic salmon",
abstract = "Understanding the mechanisms by which populations adapt to their environments is a fundamental aim in biology. However, it remains challenging to identify the genetic basis of traits, provide evidence of genetic changes and quantify phenotypic responses. Age at maturity in Atlantic salmon represents an ideal trait to study contemporary adaptive evolution as it has been associated with a single locus in the vgll3 region and has also strongly changed in recent decades. Here, we provide an empirical example of contemporary adaptive evolution of a large-effect locus driving contrasting sex-specific evolutionary responses at the phenotypic level. We identified an 18{\%} decrease in the vgll3 allele associated with late maturity in a large and diverse salmon population over 36 years, induced by sex-specific selection during sea migration. Those genetic changes resulted in a significant evolutionary response only in males, due to sex-specific dominance patterns and vgll3 allelic effects. The vgll3 allelic and dominance effects differed greatly in a second population and were likely to generate different selection and evolutionary patterns. Our study highlights the importance of knowledge of genetic architecture to better understand fitness trait evolution and phenotypic diversity. It also emphasizes the potential role of adaptive evolution in the trend towards earlier maturation observed in numerous Atlantic salmon populations worldwide.",
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author = "Yann Czorlich and Tutku Aykanat and Jaakko Erkinaro and Panu Orell and Primmer, {Craig Robert}",
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Rapid sex-specific evolution of age at maturity is shaped by genetic architecture in Atlantic salmon. / Czorlich, Yann; Aykanat, Tutku; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Orell, Panu; Primmer, Craig Robert.

I: Nature Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 2, Nr. 11, 11.2018, s. 1800-1807.

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelVetenskapligPeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Rapid sex-specific evolution of age at maturity is shaped by genetic architecture in Atlantic salmon

AU - Czorlich, Yann

AU - Aykanat, Tutku

AU - Erkinaro, Jaakko

AU - Orell, Panu

AU - Primmer, Craig Robert

PY - 2018/11

Y1 - 2018/11

N2 - Understanding the mechanisms by which populations adapt to their environments is a fundamental aim in biology. However, it remains challenging to identify the genetic basis of traits, provide evidence of genetic changes and quantify phenotypic responses. Age at maturity in Atlantic salmon represents an ideal trait to study contemporary adaptive evolution as it has been associated with a single locus in the vgll3 region and has also strongly changed in recent decades. Here, we provide an empirical example of contemporary adaptive evolution of a large-effect locus driving contrasting sex-specific evolutionary responses at the phenotypic level. We identified an 18% decrease in the vgll3 allele associated with late maturity in a large and diverse salmon population over 36 years, induced by sex-specific selection during sea migration. Those genetic changes resulted in a significant evolutionary response only in males, due to sex-specific dominance patterns and vgll3 allelic effects. The vgll3 allelic and dominance effects differed greatly in a second population and were likely to generate different selection and evolutionary patterns. Our study highlights the importance of knowledge of genetic architecture to better understand fitness trait evolution and phenotypic diversity. It also emphasizes the potential role of adaptive evolution in the trend towards earlier maturation observed in numerous Atlantic salmon populations worldwide.

AB - Understanding the mechanisms by which populations adapt to their environments is a fundamental aim in biology. However, it remains challenging to identify the genetic basis of traits, provide evidence of genetic changes and quantify phenotypic responses. Age at maturity in Atlantic salmon represents an ideal trait to study contemporary adaptive evolution as it has been associated with a single locus in the vgll3 region and has also strongly changed in recent decades. Here, we provide an empirical example of contemporary adaptive evolution of a large-effect locus driving contrasting sex-specific evolutionary responses at the phenotypic level. We identified an 18% decrease in the vgll3 allele associated with late maturity in a large and diverse salmon population over 36 years, induced by sex-specific selection during sea migration. Those genetic changes resulted in a significant evolutionary response only in males, due to sex-specific dominance patterns and vgll3 allelic effects. The vgll3 allelic and dominance effects differed greatly in a second population and were likely to generate different selection and evolutionary patterns. Our study highlights the importance of knowledge of genetic architecture to better understand fitness trait evolution and phenotypic diversity. It also emphasizes the potential role of adaptive evolution in the trend towards earlier maturation observed in numerous Atlantic salmon populations worldwide.

KW - 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology

KW - 1184 Genetics, developmental biology, physiology

KW - EFFECTIVE POPULATION-SIZE

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KW - CLIMATE-CHANGE

KW - LIFE-HISTORY

KW - PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY

KW - NORTH-ATLANTIC

KW - ADAPTATION

KW - FISH

KW - INFERENCE

KW - SELECTION

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