Traditional main ingredients of licorice candies are wheat flour, molasses, sugar, licorice extract (from the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra), and black colorant (charcoal, E153). Licorice is popular in Nordic countries, but gluten from wheat limits the number of its potential consumers. Therefore, we applied sensory driven design to optimize sensory characteristics of licorice made of naturally gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Variants of quinoa licorice were made using a twin-screw extruder. Preliminary hedonic tests suggested that licorice made with coconut sugar was preferred to one made with plain sugar, and that anise-flavored licorice was preferred to unflavored and tar-flavored ones. Thus, we conducted a generic descriptive analysis (GDA, N = 19 trained panelists) and hedonic test (N = 87 consumers, 84% women, aged 19 to 70 years) to investigate four quinoa licorice samples (made using coconut sugar), that varied in anise-flavoring (no/yes) and mass flow in the extrusion process (low/high), in comparison with two commercial gluten-free licorice products made using rice flour. The GDA showed that the quinoa licorice samples did not differ from each other in any of the 10 quantified sensory attributes. However, in comparison to the rice licorices, the quinoa licorices were rated as being less homogenous in appearance and texture and less intense in sweet taste, licorice flavor, and overall flavor. Results of the hedonic test followed similar pattern: the quinoa licorice samples did not differ from each other, but their overall pleasantness and pleasantness of their appearance, flavor, and texture were rated as lower than those of commercial gluten-free licorices (no difference in the pleasantness of odor). In conclusion, the sensory methods were useful to reveal sensory characteristics to be focused on in further development of quinoa licorice: to make the appearance and texture smoother and flavor stronger.
|Status||Publicerad - 3 sep 2018|
|Evenemang||EuroSense 2018: Eighth European Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research - Verona, Italien|
Varaktighet: 2 sep 2018 → 5 sep 2018
|Period||02/09/2018 → 05/09/2018|
- 416 Livsmedelsvetenskap