Socio-economic Impacts of a National Park on Local Indigenous Livelihoods: The Case of the Bwabwata National Park in Namibia

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Sammanfattning

Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) is a conservation model that, contrary to the conventional top-down protected area management approach, aims to merge biodiversity conservation with community livelihoods. That said, the actual contribution of CBNRM to local livelihoods remains contested. Using a Sustainable Livelihoods Framework to analyse empirical data from the East Bwabwata National Park (BNP East) in Namibia, we assess the contribution of CBNRM to rural income development relative to other revenue sources. We identify four main livelihood strategies related to income: (1) formal employment, (2) seasonal employment, (3) occasional cash income, and (4) social safety nets. Our results indicate that the largest income contribution to residents of BNP East comes from non-CBNRM-based formal employment (45.06%) followed by social safety-net benefits (33.83%). CBNRM-related income accounts for less than a quarter (21.11%) of annual household incomes, whilst also displaying the highest vulnerability. We advocate for a greater diversification of income sources, including that from CBNRM. In order to ensure socio-ecological justice and sustainability of both livelihoods and the local natural resource base, we conclude by emphasizing the need to ground the CBNRM model in its core principle of community control over decision-making processes that impact the local environment.
Originalspråkengelska
Titel på gästpublikationResearch and Activism among the Kalahari San Today : Ideals, Challenges, and Debates
RedaktörerR. Fleming Puckett, Kazunobu Ikeya
Antal sidor18
Volym99
UtgivningsortOsaka
FörlagNational Museum of Ethnology, Japan
Utgivningsdatum2018
Sidor197-214
ISBN (elektroniskt)978-4-906962-68-6
StatusPublicerad - 2018
MoE-publikationstypA3 Del av bok eller annan forskningsbok

Publikationsserier

NamnSenri Ethnological Studies
Nummer99
ISSN (tryckt)0387-6004

Vetenskapsgrenar

  • 5143 Social- och kulturantropologi
  • 5203 U-landsforskning

Citera det här

Paksi, A., & Pyhälä, A. A. (2018). Socio-economic Impacts of a National Park on Local Indigenous Livelihoods: The Case of the Bwabwata National Park in Namibia. I R. F. Puckett, & K. Ikeya (Red.), Research and Activism among the Kalahari San Today : Ideals, Challenges, and Debates (Vol. 99, s. 197-214). (Senri Ethnological Studies; Nr. 99). National Museum of Ethnology, Japan. https://minpaku.repo.nii.ac.jp/?action=pages_view_main&active_action=repository_view_main_item_detail&item_id=8021&item_no=1&page_id=15&block_id=22