Source and origin of active and fossil thermal spring systems, northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany

A. Loges, Thomas Wagner, T. Kirnbauer, S. Göb, M. Bau, Z. Berner, G. Markl

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelVetenskapligPeer review

Sammanfattning

Thermal water samples and related young and fossil mineralization from a geothermal system at the northern margin of the Upper Rhine Graben have been investigated by combining hydrochemistry with stable and strontium isotope geochemistry. Actively discharging thermal springs and mineralization are present in a structural zone that extends over at least 60 km along strike, with two of the main centers of hydrothermal activity being Wiesbaden and Bad Nauheim. This setting provides the rare opportunity to link the chemistry and isotopic signatures of modern thermal waters directly with fossil mineralization dating back to at least 500 to 800 ka. The fossil thermal spring mineralization can be classified into two major types: barite-(pyrite) fracture filling associated with laterally-extensive silicification; and barite, goethite and silica impregnation mineralization in Tertiary sediments. Additionally, carbonatic sinters occur around active springs. Strontium isotope and trace element data suggest that mixing of a hot (> 100 °C), deep-sourced thermal water with cooler groundwater from shallow aquifers is responsible for present-day thermal spring discharge and fossil mineralization. The correlation between both strontium and sulfur isotope ratios and the elevation of the barite mineralization relative to the present-day water table in Wiesbaden is explained by mixing of deep-sourced thermal water having high 87Sr/86Sr and low δ34S with shallow groundwater of lower 87Sr/86Sr and higher δ34S. The Sr isotope data demonstrate that the hot thermal waters originate from an aquifer in the Variscan crystalline basement at depths of 3-5 km. The sulfur isotope data show that impregnation-type mineralization is strongly influenced by mixing with sulfate that has high δ34S values. The fracture style mineralization formed by cooling of the thermal waters, whereas impregnation-type mineralization precipitated by mixing with sulfate-rich groundwater percolating through the sediments.

Originalspråkengelska
TidskriftApplied Geochemistry
Volym27
Utgåva6
Sidor (från-till)1153-1169
ISSN0883-2927
DOI
StatusPublicerad - 2012
Externt publiceradJa
MoE-publikationstypA1 Tidskriftsartikel-refererad

Citera det här

Loges, A. ; Wagner, Thomas ; Kirnbauer, T. ; Göb, S. ; Bau, M. ; Berner, Z. ; Markl, G. / Source and origin of active and fossil thermal spring systems, northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany. I: Applied Geochemistry. 2012 ; Vol. 27, Nr. 6. s. 1153-1169.
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title = "Source and origin of active and fossil thermal spring systems, northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany",
abstract = "Thermal water samples and related young and fossil mineralization from a geothermal system at the northern margin of the Upper Rhine Graben have been investigated by combining hydrochemistry with stable and strontium isotope geochemistry. Actively discharging thermal springs and mineralization are present in a structural zone that extends over at least 60 km along strike, with two of the main centers of hydrothermal activity being Wiesbaden and Bad Nauheim. This setting provides the rare opportunity to link the chemistry and isotopic signatures of modern thermal waters directly with fossil mineralization dating back to at least 500 to 800 ka. The fossil thermal spring mineralization can be classified into two major types: barite-(pyrite) fracture filling associated with laterally-extensive silicification; and barite, goethite and silica impregnation mineralization in Tertiary sediments. Additionally, carbonatic sinters occur around active springs. Strontium isotope and trace element data suggest that mixing of a hot (> 100 °C), deep-sourced thermal water with cooler groundwater from shallow aquifers is responsible for present-day thermal spring discharge and fossil mineralization. The correlation between both strontium and sulfur isotope ratios and the elevation of the barite mineralization relative to the present-day water table in Wiesbaden is explained by mixing of deep-sourced thermal water having high 87Sr/86Sr and low δ34S with shallow groundwater of lower 87Sr/86Sr and higher δ34S. The Sr isotope data demonstrate that the hot thermal waters originate from an aquifer in the Variscan crystalline basement at depths of 3-5 km. The sulfur isotope data show that impregnation-type mineralization is strongly influenced by mixing with sulfate that has high δ34S values. The fracture style mineralization formed by cooling of the thermal waters, whereas impregnation-type mineralization precipitated by mixing with sulfate-rich groundwater percolating through the sediments.",
author = "A. Loges and Thomas Wagner and T. Kirnbauer and S. G{\"o}b and M. Bau and Z. Berner and G. Markl",
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Source and origin of active and fossil thermal spring systems, northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany. / Loges, A.; Wagner, Thomas; Kirnbauer, T.; Göb, S.; Bau, M.; Berner, Z.; Markl, G.

I: Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 27, Nr. 6, 2012, s. 1153-1169.

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelVetenskapligPeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Source and origin of active and fossil thermal spring systems, northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany

AU - Loges, A.

AU - Wagner, Thomas

AU - Kirnbauer, T.

AU - Göb, S.

AU - Bau, M.

AU - Berner, Z.

AU - Markl, G.

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Thermal water samples and related young and fossil mineralization from a geothermal system at the northern margin of the Upper Rhine Graben have been investigated by combining hydrochemistry with stable and strontium isotope geochemistry. Actively discharging thermal springs and mineralization are present in a structural zone that extends over at least 60 km along strike, with two of the main centers of hydrothermal activity being Wiesbaden and Bad Nauheim. This setting provides the rare opportunity to link the chemistry and isotopic signatures of modern thermal waters directly with fossil mineralization dating back to at least 500 to 800 ka. The fossil thermal spring mineralization can be classified into two major types: barite-(pyrite) fracture filling associated with laterally-extensive silicification; and barite, goethite and silica impregnation mineralization in Tertiary sediments. Additionally, carbonatic sinters occur around active springs. Strontium isotope and trace element data suggest that mixing of a hot (> 100 °C), deep-sourced thermal water with cooler groundwater from shallow aquifers is responsible for present-day thermal spring discharge and fossil mineralization. The correlation between both strontium and sulfur isotope ratios and the elevation of the barite mineralization relative to the present-day water table in Wiesbaden is explained by mixing of deep-sourced thermal water having high 87Sr/86Sr and low δ34S with shallow groundwater of lower 87Sr/86Sr and higher δ34S. The Sr isotope data demonstrate that the hot thermal waters originate from an aquifer in the Variscan crystalline basement at depths of 3-5 km. The sulfur isotope data show that impregnation-type mineralization is strongly influenced by mixing with sulfate that has high δ34S values. The fracture style mineralization formed by cooling of the thermal waters, whereas impregnation-type mineralization precipitated by mixing with sulfate-rich groundwater percolating through the sediments.

AB - Thermal water samples and related young and fossil mineralization from a geothermal system at the northern margin of the Upper Rhine Graben have been investigated by combining hydrochemistry with stable and strontium isotope geochemistry. Actively discharging thermal springs and mineralization are present in a structural zone that extends over at least 60 km along strike, with two of the main centers of hydrothermal activity being Wiesbaden and Bad Nauheim. This setting provides the rare opportunity to link the chemistry and isotopic signatures of modern thermal waters directly with fossil mineralization dating back to at least 500 to 800 ka. The fossil thermal spring mineralization can be classified into two major types: barite-(pyrite) fracture filling associated with laterally-extensive silicification; and barite, goethite and silica impregnation mineralization in Tertiary sediments. Additionally, carbonatic sinters occur around active springs. Strontium isotope and trace element data suggest that mixing of a hot (> 100 °C), deep-sourced thermal water with cooler groundwater from shallow aquifers is responsible for present-day thermal spring discharge and fossil mineralization. The correlation between both strontium and sulfur isotope ratios and the elevation of the barite mineralization relative to the present-day water table in Wiesbaden is explained by mixing of deep-sourced thermal water having high 87Sr/86Sr and low δ34S with shallow groundwater of lower 87Sr/86Sr and higher δ34S. The Sr isotope data demonstrate that the hot thermal waters originate from an aquifer in the Variscan crystalline basement at depths of 3-5 km. The sulfur isotope data show that impregnation-type mineralization is strongly influenced by mixing with sulfate that has high δ34S values. The fracture style mineralization formed by cooling of the thermal waters, whereas impregnation-type mineralization precipitated by mixing with sulfate-rich groundwater percolating through the sediments.

U2 - 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2012.02.024

DO - 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2012.02.024

M3 - Article

VL - 27

SP - 1153

EP - 1169

JO - Applied Geochemistry

JF - Applied Geochemistry

SN - 0883-2927

IS - 6

ER -