The First Matrix Diffusion Experiment in the Water Phase of the REPRO Project: WPDE 1

Antti Poteri, Peter Andersson, Kersti Nilsson, Byegård Johan, Mats Skålberg, Marja Kyllikki Siitari-Kauppi, Anna Marja Kerttuli Helariutta, Mikko Antero Voutilainen, Pekka Juhani Kekäläinen, Jussi Oskari Ikonen, Juuso Keffe William Sammaljärvi, Lindberg Antero, Jussi Timonen, Jukka Kuva, Lasse Koskinen

Forskningsoutput: Bok/rapportBeställd rapportProfessionell

Sammanfattning

REPRO experiments analysed the matrix retention properties of the rock matrix under realistic conditions deep in the bedrock in ONKALO underground characterisation facility at Olkiluoto, Finland. The objective was to investigate tracer transport in the rock matrix, which was representative to the near-field of the nuclear waste repository, and to demonstrate that the assumptions made in the safety case of the final nuclear waste repository were in line with site evidence.

REPRO investigated the retention properties under different experimental configurations. The present Report describes the first in situ tracer test, the WPDE 1 test (Water Phase Diffusion Experiment). This experiment was performed from 8th of March to 21st of August in 2012 as a matrix diffusion experiment in a single drill hole. Tracer transport took place in the cylindrical circumference of a 2m long packed-off section of the drill hole. This set up enabled matrix diffusion through the wall of the drill hole into the rock matrix, which surrounded the experimental section.

Interpretation of the in situ tracer test was supported by a wide variety of parallel and independent laboratory experiments. This Report also summarises the results of these laboratory measurements of porosity, diffusion, permeability and batch sorption, as well as those of mineralogical and structural studies, which were made on the drill core samples taken from the experimental section of the in situ experiment.

WPDE 1 test was executed using a cocktail of four different tracers (HTO, 22Na, 125I and 36Cl) and when this cocktail was injected such that it created a pulse of short duration. The experimental performance of the test was successful. Measured breakthrough curves were successfully analysed using two independent models. Based on the analyses it was evident that matrix diffusion and sorption in the rock matrix had caused the retention observed in the test. The retention properties of the rock matrix resulting from these models were comparable within the uncertainties of the experimental results.

The tracer test results estimated from the in situ tracer test could be divided into three groups such that 22Na and 125I showed more retention than HTO, and 36Cl showed less retention than HTO indicating sorption and anion exclusion processes. Assuming a zero Kd for HTO and a rock matrix porosity of 0.6 %, based on the laboratory measurements, lead to Dp ~ 2×10‑11 m2/s for HTO in the rock matrix. Additional retention of 22Na and 125I compared to HTO could be addressed using Kd ~ (0.4…1.8) ×10-4 m3/kg, such that Kd for 125I was close to the lower end and Kd for 22Na was close to the upper end of the range. The results for 125I should however be considered very cautiously, because the behaviour of 125I appeared to include uncertainties which probably followed from the non-iodine species of the tracer cocktail during the test. A low retention of 36Cl in the rock matrix was thought to be affected by anion exclusion such that all the pores in the rock matrix were not available for matrix diffusion. The breakthrough curves lead to a diffusivity of 36Cl, which was about a half of an order of magnitude smaller than without anion exclusion, and to porosity available for diffusion, which was about a 1/3 of the values estimated otherwise for HTO.

Penetration depth of the HTO in WPDE 1 have been estimated to be 14–22 mm. Thus, indicating that depth of the connected porosity is at least over 2 cm.
Bidragets titel på inmatningsspråkREPRO-PROJEKTIN ENSIMMÄINEN MATRIISIDIFFUUSIOKOE VESIFAASISSA: WPDE 1
Originalspråkengelska
UtgivningsortOlkiluoto, Eurajoki
FörlagPosiva Oy
Antal sidor288
StatusPublicerad - 2018
MoE-publikationstypD4 Publicerad utvecklings- eller forskningsrapport eller studie

Publikationsserier

NamnPosiva Working Report
FörlagPosiva Oy
Nr.2017-23

Vetenskapsgrenar

  • 116 Kemi
  • 1171 Geovetenskaper

Citera det här

Poteri, A., Andersson, P., Nilsson, K., Johan, B., Skålberg, M., Siitari-Kauppi, M. K., ... Koskinen, L. (2018). The First Matrix Diffusion Experiment in the Water Phase of the REPRO Project: WPDE 1. (Posiva Working Report; Nr. 2017-23). Olkiluoto, Eurajoki: Posiva Oy.
Poteri, Antti ; Andersson, Peter ; Nilsson, Kersti ; Johan, Byegård ; Skålberg, Mats ; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja Kyllikki ; Helariutta, Anna Marja Kerttuli ; Voutilainen, Mikko Antero ; Kekäläinen, Pekka Juhani ; Ikonen, Jussi Oskari ; Sammaljärvi, Juuso Keffe William ; Antero, Lindberg ; Timonen, Jussi ; Kuva, Jukka ; Koskinen, Lasse. / The First Matrix Diffusion Experiment in the Water Phase of the REPRO Project: WPDE 1. Olkiluoto, Eurajoki : Posiva Oy, 2018. 288 s. (Posiva Working Report; 2017-23).
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title = "The First Matrix Diffusion Experiment in the Water Phase of the REPRO Project: WPDE 1",
abstract = "REPRO experiments analysed the matrix retention properties of the rock matrix under realistic conditions deep in the bedrock in ONKALO underground characterisation facility at Olkiluoto, Finland. The objective was to investigate tracer transport in the rock matrix, which was representative to the near-field of the nuclear waste repository, and to demonstrate that the assumptions made in the safety case of the final nuclear waste repository were in line with site evidence.REPRO investigated the retention properties under different experimental configurations. The present Report describes the first in situ tracer test, the WPDE 1 test (Water Phase Diffusion Experiment). This experiment was performed from 8th of March to 21st of August in 2012 as a matrix diffusion experiment in a single drill hole. Tracer transport took place in the cylindrical circumference of a 2m long packed-off section of the drill hole. This set up enabled matrix diffusion through the wall of the drill hole into the rock matrix, which surrounded the experimental section.Interpretation of the in situ tracer test was supported by a wide variety of parallel and independent laboratory experiments. This Report also summarises the results of these laboratory measurements of porosity, diffusion, permeability and batch sorption, as well as those of mineralogical and structural studies, which were made on the drill core samples taken from the experimental section of the in situ experiment.WPDE 1 test was executed using a cocktail of four different tracers (HTO, 22Na, 125I and 36Cl) and when this cocktail was injected such that it created a pulse of short duration. The experimental performance of the test was successful. Measured breakthrough curves were successfully analysed using two independent models. Based on the analyses it was evident that matrix diffusion and sorption in the rock matrix had caused the retention observed in the test. The retention properties of the rock matrix resulting from these models were comparable within the uncertainties of the experimental results.The tracer test results estimated from the in situ tracer test could be divided into three groups such that 22Na and 125I showed more retention than HTO, and 36Cl showed less retention than HTO indicating sorption and anion exclusion processes. Assuming a zero Kd for HTO and a rock matrix porosity of 0.6 {\%}, based on the laboratory measurements, lead to Dp ~ 2×10‑11 m2/s for HTO in the rock matrix. Additional retention of 22Na and 125I compared to HTO could be addressed using Kd ~ (0.4…1.8) ×10-4 m3/kg, such that Kd for 125I was close to the lower end and Kd for 22Na was close to the upper end of the range. The results for 125I should however be considered very cautiously, because the behaviour of 125I appeared to include uncertainties which probably followed from the non-iodine species of the tracer cocktail during the test. A low retention of 36Cl in the rock matrix was thought to be affected by anion exclusion such that all the pores in the rock matrix were not available for matrix diffusion. The breakthrough curves lead to a diffusivity of 36Cl, which was about a half of an order of magnitude smaller than without anion exclusion, and to porosity available for diffusion, which was about a 1/3 of the values estimated otherwise for HTO.Penetration depth of the HTO in WPDE 1 have been estimated to be 14–22 mm. Thus, indicating that depth of the connected porosity is at least over 2 cm.",
keywords = "116 Chemical sciences, 1171 Geosciences",
author = "Antti Poteri and Peter Andersson and Kersti Nilsson and Byeg{\aa}rd Johan and Mats Sk{\aa}lberg and Siitari-Kauppi, {Marja Kyllikki} and Helariutta, {Anna Marja Kerttuli} and Voutilainen, {Mikko Antero} and Kek{\"a}l{\"a}inen, {Pekka Juhani} and Ikonen, {Jussi Oskari} and Sammalj{\"a}rvi, {Juuso Keffe William} and Lindberg Antero and Jussi Timonen and Jukka Kuva and Lasse Koskinen",
year = "2018",
language = "English",
series = "Posiva Working Report",
publisher = "Posiva Oy",
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Poteri, A, Andersson, P, Nilsson, K, Johan, B, Skålberg, M, Siitari-Kauppi, MK, Helariutta, AMK, Voutilainen, MA, Kekäläinen, PJ, Ikonen, JO, Sammaljärvi, JKW, Antero, L, Timonen, J, Kuva, J & Koskinen, L 2018, The First Matrix Diffusion Experiment in the Water Phase of the REPRO Project: WPDE 1. Posiva Working Report, nr. 2017-23, Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto, Eurajoki.

The First Matrix Diffusion Experiment in the Water Phase of the REPRO Project: WPDE 1. / Poteri, Antti; Andersson, Peter; Nilsson, Kersti; Johan, Byegård; Skålberg, Mats; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja Kyllikki; Helariutta, Anna Marja Kerttuli; Voutilainen, Mikko Antero; Kekäläinen, Pekka Juhani; Ikonen, Jussi Oskari; Sammaljärvi, Juuso Keffe William; Antero, Lindberg; Timonen, Jussi; Kuva, Jukka; Koskinen, Lasse.

Olkiluoto, Eurajoki : Posiva Oy, 2018. 288 s. (Posiva Working Report; Nr. 2017-23).

Forskningsoutput: Bok/rapportBeställd rapportProfessionell

TY - BOOK

T1 - The First Matrix Diffusion Experiment in the Water Phase of the REPRO Project: WPDE 1

AU - Poteri, Antti

AU - Andersson, Peter

AU - Nilsson, Kersti

AU - Johan, Byegård

AU - Skålberg, Mats

AU - Siitari-Kauppi, Marja Kyllikki

AU - Helariutta, Anna Marja Kerttuli

AU - Voutilainen, Mikko Antero

AU - Kekäläinen, Pekka Juhani

AU - Ikonen, Jussi Oskari

AU - Sammaljärvi, Juuso Keffe William

AU - Antero, Lindberg

AU - Timonen, Jussi

AU - Kuva, Jukka

AU - Koskinen, Lasse

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - REPRO experiments analysed the matrix retention properties of the rock matrix under realistic conditions deep in the bedrock in ONKALO underground characterisation facility at Olkiluoto, Finland. The objective was to investigate tracer transport in the rock matrix, which was representative to the near-field of the nuclear waste repository, and to demonstrate that the assumptions made in the safety case of the final nuclear waste repository were in line with site evidence.REPRO investigated the retention properties under different experimental configurations. The present Report describes the first in situ tracer test, the WPDE 1 test (Water Phase Diffusion Experiment). This experiment was performed from 8th of March to 21st of August in 2012 as a matrix diffusion experiment in a single drill hole. Tracer transport took place in the cylindrical circumference of a 2m long packed-off section of the drill hole. This set up enabled matrix diffusion through the wall of the drill hole into the rock matrix, which surrounded the experimental section.Interpretation of the in situ tracer test was supported by a wide variety of parallel and independent laboratory experiments. This Report also summarises the results of these laboratory measurements of porosity, diffusion, permeability and batch sorption, as well as those of mineralogical and structural studies, which were made on the drill core samples taken from the experimental section of the in situ experiment.WPDE 1 test was executed using a cocktail of four different tracers (HTO, 22Na, 125I and 36Cl) and when this cocktail was injected such that it created a pulse of short duration. The experimental performance of the test was successful. Measured breakthrough curves were successfully analysed using two independent models. Based on the analyses it was evident that matrix diffusion and sorption in the rock matrix had caused the retention observed in the test. The retention properties of the rock matrix resulting from these models were comparable within the uncertainties of the experimental results.The tracer test results estimated from the in situ tracer test could be divided into three groups such that 22Na and 125I showed more retention than HTO, and 36Cl showed less retention than HTO indicating sorption and anion exclusion processes. Assuming a zero Kd for HTO and a rock matrix porosity of 0.6 %, based on the laboratory measurements, lead to Dp ~ 2×10‑11 m2/s for HTO in the rock matrix. Additional retention of 22Na and 125I compared to HTO could be addressed using Kd ~ (0.4…1.8) ×10-4 m3/kg, such that Kd for 125I was close to the lower end and Kd for 22Na was close to the upper end of the range. The results for 125I should however be considered very cautiously, because the behaviour of 125I appeared to include uncertainties which probably followed from the non-iodine species of the tracer cocktail during the test. A low retention of 36Cl in the rock matrix was thought to be affected by anion exclusion such that all the pores in the rock matrix were not available for matrix diffusion. The breakthrough curves lead to a diffusivity of 36Cl, which was about a half of an order of magnitude smaller than without anion exclusion, and to porosity available for diffusion, which was about a 1/3 of the values estimated otherwise for HTO.Penetration depth of the HTO in WPDE 1 have been estimated to be 14–22 mm. Thus, indicating that depth of the connected porosity is at least over 2 cm.

AB - REPRO experiments analysed the matrix retention properties of the rock matrix under realistic conditions deep in the bedrock in ONKALO underground characterisation facility at Olkiluoto, Finland. The objective was to investigate tracer transport in the rock matrix, which was representative to the near-field of the nuclear waste repository, and to demonstrate that the assumptions made in the safety case of the final nuclear waste repository were in line with site evidence.REPRO investigated the retention properties under different experimental configurations. The present Report describes the first in situ tracer test, the WPDE 1 test (Water Phase Diffusion Experiment). This experiment was performed from 8th of March to 21st of August in 2012 as a matrix diffusion experiment in a single drill hole. Tracer transport took place in the cylindrical circumference of a 2m long packed-off section of the drill hole. This set up enabled matrix diffusion through the wall of the drill hole into the rock matrix, which surrounded the experimental section.Interpretation of the in situ tracer test was supported by a wide variety of parallel and independent laboratory experiments. This Report also summarises the results of these laboratory measurements of porosity, diffusion, permeability and batch sorption, as well as those of mineralogical and structural studies, which were made on the drill core samples taken from the experimental section of the in situ experiment.WPDE 1 test was executed using a cocktail of four different tracers (HTO, 22Na, 125I and 36Cl) and when this cocktail was injected such that it created a pulse of short duration. The experimental performance of the test was successful. Measured breakthrough curves were successfully analysed using two independent models. Based on the analyses it was evident that matrix diffusion and sorption in the rock matrix had caused the retention observed in the test. The retention properties of the rock matrix resulting from these models were comparable within the uncertainties of the experimental results.The tracer test results estimated from the in situ tracer test could be divided into three groups such that 22Na and 125I showed more retention than HTO, and 36Cl showed less retention than HTO indicating sorption and anion exclusion processes. Assuming a zero Kd for HTO and a rock matrix porosity of 0.6 %, based on the laboratory measurements, lead to Dp ~ 2×10‑11 m2/s for HTO in the rock matrix. Additional retention of 22Na and 125I compared to HTO could be addressed using Kd ~ (0.4…1.8) ×10-4 m3/kg, such that Kd for 125I was close to the lower end and Kd for 22Na was close to the upper end of the range. The results for 125I should however be considered very cautiously, because the behaviour of 125I appeared to include uncertainties which probably followed from the non-iodine species of the tracer cocktail during the test. A low retention of 36Cl in the rock matrix was thought to be affected by anion exclusion such that all the pores in the rock matrix were not available for matrix diffusion. The breakthrough curves lead to a diffusivity of 36Cl, which was about a half of an order of magnitude smaller than without anion exclusion, and to porosity available for diffusion, which was about a 1/3 of the values estimated otherwise for HTO.Penetration depth of the HTO in WPDE 1 have been estimated to be 14–22 mm. Thus, indicating that depth of the connected porosity is at least over 2 cm.

KW - 116 Chemical sciences

KW - 1171 Geosciences

M3 - Commissioned report

T3 - Posiva Working Report

BT - The First Matrix Diffusion Experiment in the Water Phase of the REPRO Project: WPDE 1

PB - Posiva Oy

CY - Olkiluoto, Eurajoki

ER -

Poteri A, Andersson P, Nilsson K, Johan B, Skålberg M, Siitari-Kauppi MK et al. The First Matrix Diffusion Experiment in the Water Phase of the REPRO Project: WPDE 1. Olkiluoto, Eurajoki: Posiva Oy, 2018. 288 s. (Posiva Working Report; 2017-23).