The Peptide Toxin Amylosin of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens from Moisture-Damaged Buildings Is Immunotoxic, Induces Potassium Efflux from Mammalian Cells, and Has Antimicrobial Activity

Stiina Rasimus-Sahari, Vera V. Teplova, Maria A. Andersson, Raimo Mikkola, Päivi Kankkunen, Sampsa Matikainen, Carl G. Gahmberg, Leif C. Andersson, Mirja Sinikka Salkinoja-Salonen

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelVetenskapligPeer review

Sammanfattning

Amylosin, a heat-stable channel-forming non-ribosomally synthesized peptide toxin produced by strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from moisture-damaged buildings, is shown in this paper to have immunotoxic and cytotoxic effects on human cells as well as antagonistic effects on microbes. Human macrophages exposed to 50 ng of amylosin ml-1 secreted high levels of
cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 within two hours, indicating activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, an integral part of the innate immune system. At the same exposure level, expression of IL-1β and IL-18 mRNA increased. Amylosin caused dose-dependent potassium ion efflux from all tested mammalian cells (human monocytes and keratinocytes and porcine sperm cells) at 1 to 2
32 μM exposure. Amylosin also inhibited the motility of porcine sperm cells and depolarized the mitochondria of human keratinocytes. Amylosin may thus trigger the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequently cytokine release by causing potassium efflux from the exposed cells. The results of this study indicate that exposure to amylosin activates the innate immune system which could offer an explanation for the inflammatory symptoms experienced by
occupants of moisture-damaged buildings. In addition, the amylosin-producing B. amyloliquefaciens inhibited the growth of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic indoor microbes and purified amylosin also had an antimicrobial effect. These antimicrobial effects could make amylosin-producers dominant and therefore significant causal agents of health problems in some moisture-damaged sites.
Originalspråkengelska
TidskriftApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Volym81
Utgåva8
Sidor (från-till)2939-2949
Antal sidor11
ISSN0099-2240
DOI
StatusPublicerad - 13 feb 2015
MoE-publikationstypA1 Tidskriftsartikel-refererad

Vetenskapsgrenar

  • 1183 Växtbiologi, mikrobiologi, virologi

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@article{1f658da2e1bc4b53b09f29f9dfcf9aa6,
title = "The Peptide Toxin Amylosin of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens from Moisture-Damaged Buildings Is Immunotoxic, Induces Potassium Efflux from Mammalian Cells, and Has Antimicrobial Activity",
abstract = "Amylosin, a heat-stable channel-forming non-ribosomally synthesized peptide toxin produced by strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from moisture-damaged buildings, is shown in this paper to have immunotoxic and cytotoxic effects on human cells as well as antagonistic effects on microbes. Human macrophages exposed to 50 ng of amylosin ml-1 secreted high levels of cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 within two hours, indicating activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, an integral part of the innate immune system. At the same exposure level, expression of IL-1β and IL-18 mRNA increased. Amylosin caused dose-dependent potassium ion efflux from all tested mammalian cells (human monocytes and keratinocytes and porcine sperm cells) at 1 to 232 μM exposure. Amylosin also inhibited the motility of porcine sperm cells and depolarized the mitochondria of human keratinocytes. Amylosin may thus trigger the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequently cytokine release by causing potassium efflux from the exposed cells. The results of this study indicate that exposure to amylosin activates the innate immune system which could offer an explanation for the inflammatory symptoms experienced byoccupants of moisture-damaged buildings. In addition, the amylosin-producing B. amyloliquefaciens inhibited the growth of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic indoor microbes and purified amylosin also had an antimicrobial effect. These antimicrobial effects could make amylosin-producers dominant and therefore significant causal agents of health problems in some moisture-damaged sites.",
keywords = "1183 Plant biology, microbiology, virology, amylosin, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, sick building, moisture damaged building, NLRP3 inflammasome, NLRP3, cytokine , IL-1-BETA, IL-18, potassium efflux, potassium homestasis, ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY, POTASSIUM CONDUCTANCE, Potassium ionophore, potassium",
author = "Stiina Rasimus-Sahari and Teplova, {Vera V.} and Andersson, {Maria A.} and Raimo Mikkola and P{\"a}ivi Kankkunen and Sampsa Matikainen and Gahmberg, {Carl G.} and Andersson, {Leif C.} and Salkinoja-Salonen, {Mirja Sinikka}",
year = "2015",
month = "2",
day = "13",
doi = "10.1128/AEM.03430-14",
language = "English",
volume = "81",
pages = "2939--2949",
journal = "Applied and Environmental Microbiology",
issn = "0099-2240",
publisher = "American Society for Microbiology",
number = "8",

}

The Peptide Toxin Amylosin of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens from Moisture-Damaged Buildings Is Immunotoxic, Induces Potassium Efflux from Mammalian Cells, and Has Antimicrobial Activity. / Rasimus-Sahari, Stiina; Teplova, Vera V.; Andersson, Maria A.; Mikkola, Raimo; Kankkunen, Päivi; Matikainen, Sampsa; Gahmberg, Carl G.; Andersson, Leif C.; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja Sinikka.

I: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 81, Nr. 8, 13.02.2015, s. 2939-2949.

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelVetenskapligPeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Peptide Toxin Amylosin of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens from Moisture-Damaged Buildings Is Immunotoxic, Induces Potassium Efflux from Mammalian Cells, and Has Antimicrobial Activity

AU - Rasimus-Sahari, Stiina

AU - Teplova, Vera V.

AU - Andersson, Maria A.

AU - Mikkola, Raimo

AU - Kankkunen, Päivi

AU - Matikainen, Sampsa

AU - Gahmberg, Carl G.

AU - Andersson, Leif C.

AU - Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja Sinikka

PY - 2015/2/13

Y1 - 2015/2/13

N2 - Amylosin, a heat-stable channel-forming non-ribosomally synthesized peptide toxin produced by strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from moisture-damaged buildings, is shown in this paper to have immunotoxic and cytotoxic effects on human cells as well as antagonistic effects on microbes. Human macrophages exposed to 50 ng of amylosin ml-1 secreted high levels of cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 within two hours, indicating activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, an integral part of the innate immune system. At the same exposure level, expression of IL-1β and IL-18 mRNA increased. Amylosin caused dose-dependent potassium ion efflux from all tested mammalian cells (human monocytes and keratinocytes and porcine sperm cells) at 1 to 232 μM exposure. Amylosin also inhibited the motility of porcine sperm cells and depolarized the mitochondria of human keratinocytes. Amylosin may thus trigger the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequently cytokine release by causing potassium efflux from the exposed cells. The results of this study indicate that exposure to amylosin activates the innate immune system which could offer an explanation for the inflammatory symptoms experienced byoccupants of moisture-damaged buildings. In addition, the amylosin-producing B. amyloliquefaciens inhibited the growth of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic indoor microbes and purified amylosin also had an antimicrobial effect. These antimicrobial effects could make amylosin-producers dominant and therefore significant causal agents of health problems in some moisture-damaged sites.

AB - Amylosin, a heat-stable channel-forming non-ribosomally synthesized peptide toxin produced by strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from moisture-damaged buildings, is shown in this paper to have immunotoxic and cytotoxic effects on human cells as well as antagonistic effects on microbes. Human macrophages exposed to 50 ng of amylosin ml-1 secreted high levels of cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 within two hours, indicating activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, an integral part of the innate immune system. At the same exposure level, expression of IL-1β and IL-18 mRNA increased. Amylosin caused dose-dependent potassium ion efflux from all tested mammalian cells (human monocytes and keratinocytes and porcine sperm cells) at 1 to 232 μM exposure. Amylosin also inhibited the motility of porcine sperm cells and depolarized the mitochondria of human keratinocytes. Amylosin may thus trigger the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequently cytokine release by causing potassium efflux from the exposed cells. The results of this study indicate that exposure to amylosin activates the innate immune system which could offer an explanation for the inflammatory symptoms experienced byoccupants of moisture-damaged buildings. In addition, the amylosin-producing B. amyloliquefaciens inhibited the growth of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic indoor microbes and purified amylosin also had an antimicrobial effect. These antimicrobial effects could make amylosin-producers dominant and therefore significant causal agents of health problems in some moisture-damaged sites.

KW - 1183 Plant biology, microbiology, virology

KW - amylosin

KW - Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

KW - sick building

KW - moisture damaged building

KW - NLRP3 inflammasome

KW - NLRP3

KW - cytokine

KW - IL-1-BETA

KW - IL-18

KW - potassium efflux

KW - potassium homestasis

KW - ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY

KW - POTASSIUM CONDUCTANCE

KW - Potassium ionophore

KW - potassium

U2 - 10.1128/AEM.03430-14

DO - 10.1128/AEM.03430-14

M3 - Article

VL - 81

SP - 2939

EP - 2949

JO - Applied and Environmental Microbiology

JF - Applied and Environmental Microbiology

SN - 0099-2240

IS - 8

ER -