In this study we examined diabetes- and hypertension-induced changes in cardiac structure and function in an animal model of type 2 diabetes, the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat. We hypothezised that treatment with omapatrilat, a vasopeptidase inhibitor, which causes simultaneous inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase, provides additional cardioprotective effects, during normal as well as high sodium intake, compared to treatment with enalapril, a selective inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme. Fifty-two GK rats were randomized into 6 groups to receive either normal-sodium (NaCl 0.8%) or high-sodium (NaCl 6%) diet and enalapril, omapatrilat or vehicle for 12 weeks. The GK rats developed hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and overexpression of cardiac natriuretic peptides and profibrotic connective tissue growth factor compared to nondiabetic Wistar rats. The high dietary sodium further increased the systolic blood pressure, and changed the mitral inflow pattern measured by echocardiography towards diastolic dysfunction. Enalapril and omapatrilat equally decreased the systolic blood pressure compared to the control group during normal- as well as high-sodium diet. Both drugs had beneficial cardioprotective effects, which were blunted by the high dietary sodium. Compared to enalapril, omapatrilat reduced the echocardiographically measured left ventricular mass during normal-sodium diet and improved the diastolic function during high-sodium diet in GK rats. Furthermore, omapatrilat reduced relative cardiac weight more effectively than enalapril during high sodium intake. Our results suggest that both the renin-angiotensin and the neutral endopeptidase system are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy since vasopeptidase inhibition was shown to provide additional benefits in comparison with selective angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition alone. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Grönholm, T., Cheng, Z. J., Palojoki, E., Eriksson, A., Bäcklund, T., Vuolteenaho, O., Finckenberg, P., Laine , M., Mervaala, E., & Tikkanen, I. (2005). Vasopeptidase inhibition has beneficial cardiac effects in spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. European Journal of Pharmacology, 519, 267-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.07.015